Bible School - Church History
79. Church History - 62-98 AD - Events in the First Century
Periods of Church History
Predicted from the book of Revelation: 30-98 Ephesus Rv. 2:1-7 Loved but drifted 98-313 Smyrna Rv. 2:8-11 Bitter Affliction, Persecuted 313-590 Pergamos Rv. 2:12-17 Mixed with Paganism 590-1517 Thyatira Rv. 2:18-20 Continual Idolatry 1517-1730 Sardis Rv. 3:1-6 Escaping, Remnant 1730-1900 Philadelphia Rv. 3:7-13 Brotherly Love 1900-Rapture Laodicea Rv. 3:14-22 People Ruled A Recap of historical periods: 30-98 Book of Acts and Apostles – Christianity spreads to the Roman Empire 98-312 Early Christianity - Christianity struggles for survival in Empire 312-590 The Christian Empire - Christianity dominates the Roman Empire 590-1516 Christian Middle Ages - Latin; Church/State Struggle; Supremacy of Pope 1517-1648 The Reformation - Individuals Protest against Church/State Dominion 1649-1781 Reason, Revival and Denominations - Individuals Interpret and Respond to Scripture’s Authority 1789-1912 Missions and Modernism - World Outreach; Science, Industry, Government Advance 1914-2000 Ideologies and Liberalism - Men Trust in Human Nature and Human Achievement
Church History Events
49 Council of Jerusalem
- 1st Church Council
- Issue was circumcision and Jewish Law
- Set a pattern for the ecumenical councils: tradition and authoritative
- Leaders recognized that the Spirit came to Jews and Gentiles in the same way:
- Faith in Jesus
- Not observance of the Law
- The Christian movement became a trans-cultural movemen
- Mother, Agippina, poisoned two husbands including Emperior Claudius in 54
- Agrippina had the Praetorian Guard proclaim 16 year old Nero emperor
- In 56 (age 19) he began late night rioting in the streets
- In 59 he killed his mother
- He began to give public performances at the age of 22 (in 59)
- In 62 he killed his wife to marry someone else.
- He began to write poetry, race chariots, play the lyre
- He desired to rebuild Rome into a new, modern city he would call Neropolis
- James had seen the resurrected Lord
- James was involved in the establishment of the early church in Jerusalem
- James was part of the Jerusalem Council in 48 AD
- James wrote his book called “James” around 45 AD
- James led the Jerusalem church until 63 AD
- In 63 AD, during the reign of the high priest Ananus, James was taken to a high point of the temple by the Sanhedrin and told to announce to the Jewish crowd coming to the Passover not to follow the false teaching concerning Jesus being the Christ. Instead James announced to the crowd that Jesus was the Christ, he sat at God’s right hand and will return in the clouds of heaven. The scribes and Pharisees then pushed James off the temple and proceeded to throw stones at him. As James prayed for the people he was clubbed in the head and died.
- Simeon was the son of Clopas (mentioned in John 19:25 as the husband of Mary). Clopas was the brother of Joseph which means Simeon was Jesus’ cousin.
- After James’ death the living apostles and disciples of Jesus assembled in Jerusalem and chose Simeon to fill James’ place as bishop of the Jerusalem church.
- Simeon resisted the Judaizers
- In 66 AD Simeon led the church out of Jerusalem to Pella as the Roman armies approached
- It began the night of July 18 in the wooden shops in the SE end of the Great Circus
- The fire raged for 7 nights and 6 days
- Then it burst out again and burnt 2 more parts of the city for 3 more days.
- (London’s fire of 1666 lasted 4 days; Chicago’s fire of 1871 lasted 36 hours.)
- 10 of the 14 regions of the city were destroyed. Only 2/7 of the city was left.
- The public blamed Nero.
- Historians blame Nero and his ambitions to rebuild Rome as Neropolis
- To escape responsibility Nero blamed an already suspicious group, Christians
- Tacitus: “a vast multitude” were put to death in the most shameful manner:
- Christians were crucified
- Christians were sewed up in skins of wild beast and exposed to dogs in arena
- Christians were covered with pitch or oil, nailed to post to be lit for street lights
- Within a year Peter was arrested and crucified upside down along w/ his wife
- In the spring of 68 Paul was led out on the Ostian Way and beheaded.
- On June 9, 68 Nero committed suicide by stabbing himself in the throat.
Anti-Christian Logic of Roman Empire
|Romans considered the state the highest good. The Christians obeyed the state but held to a higher law and a higher good.|
|New religions were illegal and not permitted. Old, traditional religions were allowed to continue. Once Christianity was distinguished as a separate religion from Judaism it was illegal. If a Christian were of high rank in society they were banished, if they were of a lower social rank they were executed. This may be why John the Apostle was exiled instead of executed.|
|Rome was old and had their traditional values. Christianity was bringing in new values that would undermine the traditions and the gods that had made Rome great.|
|Roman religion was done with altars, images (idols), sacrifices and temples. The Christians had none of these since their religion was internal. The Christians appeared to have no God and were considered atheists by the Romans.|
|The Christians refused emperor worship and instead worship what the Romans considered was a rival king, Jesus.|
|The Romans accepted many Gods but the Christians only worshipped Jesus.|
|Christians considered all men equal but the Roman Empire enforced slavery.|
|Christians believed that all men should work to eat, but most Romans had slaves working and even preparing the food.|
|The spread of Christianity interfered with the sale of household idols which interrupted a major business in many Roman cities.|
|Rome knew the importance of family but some families were divided when one or more of their members became a Christian.|
|The Christians began meeting in secret to avoid public speculation and interference, but this only made the Christians look more secretive and suspicious.|
|The public’s misunderstanding of the Lord’s Supper led to the rumor that the Christians practice cannibalism.|
|The practice of magic was illegal. The Christians appeared to practice magic with healing, casting out of demons and reading their magic books (scripture).|
|Soon the problems in the Roman empire were blamed on the Christians for having led the Roman population away from the traditional gods that had made Rome great.|
90-117 Asian and Roman Persecution
- Apostle was sent to Patmos during this persecution
- Emperor Domitian persecuted Jews for refusing to pay a poll tax for pagan temple
- Since Christians were considered part of Jewish faith they also were persecuted.
- During this time the governor of Bithynia (Asia Minor) wrote Emperor Trajan asking for advice concerning treatment of Christians. He says: “This superstition (Christianity) had spread in the villages and rural areas as well as in the larger cities to such an extent that the temples had been almost deserted and the sellers of sacrificial animals impoverished.” Trajan responsed to him by saying that if a person denies being a Christian to let them go. If they confess to being a Christian after being asked three times they were to be killed, unless they recanted and worshipped the Roman gods.
The Ten Major Periods of Roman Persecution
|Years||Emperor||Details: Why? Where? How?||Martyrs|
Persecuted only around Rome.
Nero blamed Christians for burning Rome.
Killed in Coliseum by animals; covered with pitch
and burnt in Nero’s courtyard; crucified
Christian’s exiled as political enemies & for not
offering emperor worship
Scattered in Rome and Asia
“Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy.
If accused the Christian could renounce Jesus,
if they refused after three times, execute them
In Asia income at temples suffered because so many had
Hadrian’s policy continued.
Christians needed to prove loyalty to state by their
action of offering a pinch of incense to the Emperor
and calling him ‘Lord’.
False accusers were punished more severely.
Hadrian put down a Jewish revolt in Israel (132-135)
165 - 177
Aurelius||Apology, to Marcus Aurelius. In 165, Justin & six students beaten & beheaded
In 177, persecution was sever in Lyons, Gaul (France)|
Christians were seen as being responsible for the natural disasters. Marcus Aurelius, the great Stoic philosopher, personally disliked the Christian faith. Christians were not sought out Justin Martyr lived in Rome & wrote a book,
Offering a pinch of incense to the emperor was a patriotic gesture like saluting the flag.
In Carthage, North Africa, two young mothers, Perpetua & Felicitas refused to offer the incense. They died in the arena. (200)
In Alexandria, Egypt (202) Origen’s father, Leonides, was martyred.
Septimus Severus visited Britain in 208. Alban, Roman soldier helped a priest escaped and was martyred by the
Executed the church leaders
Christians were persecuted because they had supported the previous Emperor who had been assassinated by Maximinus
|Hippolytus Pontianus Ursula|
This was the first persecution that covered the entire Roman Empire. Rome was trying to return to their ancient
gods and Christianity needed to be wiped out.
Fabian, the bishop of Rome, was the first to die in this persecution in January of 250.
Church meetings forbidden
Christian property seized by the state
Saturninus was dragged to death by a bull in Toulouse, Gaul (France)
Valerian ordered the death of all Rome’s church leaders. Sixtus and Lawrence were two deacons who died.
The most severe of the ten persecutions.
Christians seen as a threat to imperial unity
Church leaders suffered torture and death by the rack, the scourge, roasting in fire, crucifixion and more.
In 311 the dying emperor issued the edict of tolerance.
- Knew and worked with Paul. Mentioned in Philippians 4:3
- According to Origen he was a disciple of the apostles.
- Irenaeus writes: “He had the preaching of the apostles still echoing in his ears and their doctrine in front of his eyes.”
- Learned to use Septuagint from Paul and Luke
- He wrote a letter from Rome to the Corinthians called “First Clement. It had been referred to by other writers but was not discovered until the 1600’s
- Clement writes after Domitian persecution about 98
- Clement writes the Corinthians because the church had overthrown the church’s leadership.
- Clement appeals to the Word of God as final authority and refers to 1 Cor. 1:10
- Clement gives testimony to: Trinity, divinity of Christ, salvation only by Christ, necessity of repentance, necessity of faith, justification by grace, sanctification by Holy Spirit, unity of the church, fruit of the Spirit.
- Clement is the pastor of Rome and knows no higher office
- He writes his book in the name of the church not in the name of his office
- Clement writes to a church of apostolic foundation with a tone of authority and thus reveals how easily and innocent the papacy began.
- 100 years after his death this same position in the same church will take authority and will excommunicate whole churches for much smaller differences
The Roman Emperors
37-41 -Gaius (Caligula)
138-161 -Antoninus Pius
235-238-Maximus I Thrax|
27 BC-14 AD-
|238-Gordian I 238-Gordian II 238-Balbinus 238-Pupienus 238-244-Gordian III 244-249-Philip I (the Arab) 249-251-Trajanus Decius 251-253-Trebonianus Gallus 253-Aemilian 253-260-Valerian 253-268 -Gallienus 260-268-Postumus 269-Laelianus 269-Marius 269-271-Victorinus 271-274-Tetricus 268-270-Claudius II Gothicus 270-Quintillus 270-275-Aurelian 275-276-Tacitus 276-Florianus 276-282-Probus 282-283-Carus 283-285-Carinus 283-284-Numerianus 284-305-Diocletian 286-305, 307 -308-Maximianus 286-293-Carausius 293-297-Allectus 305-306-Constantius I Chlorus||305-311-|
63-107 Simeon, bishop of Jerusalem
- Simeon, son of Clophas (Joseph’s brother), was chosen in 63 to be the new bishop of Jerusalem by the surviving apostles and disciples of Jesus
- As Roman armies approached Jerusalem in 66 Simeon led the Jerusalem church across the Jordan into Pella in the Decapolis to save them.
- After the fall of Jerusalem, Simeon led the Christians back across the Jordan to the defeated city of Jerusalem, built a church and won many Jewish converts.
- In order to prevent another revolt after the fall of Jerusalem Emperor Vespasian ordered the death of anyone who was a descendant of David. Simeon escaped
- Emperor Domitian (81-96) followed up on the order to execute the line of David and was informed that there were grandsons of Jesus’ brother Jude. They were ordered to appear before Domitian. When Domitian saw how simple and poor they were he allowed them to live and considered them to be no threat.
- Simeon was later killed in 107 at the age of about 120 when Trajan gave a similar order to execute the line of David.
- Pastor of church in Antioch
- Contemporary pastor with Clement in Rome, Simeon in Jerusalem, Polycarp in Smyrna
- Antioch was a doorway to Gentile world and so became a seat of heretical tendencies which forced Antioch to develop sound doctrine and organize quickly
- Ignatius was tried in Antioch before Emperor Trajan and sent to Rome in chains for martyrdom in the Coliseum by being thrown to the lions.
- On his way to Rome he wrote seven letters that we still have: Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallians, Romans, Philadelphians, Smyrneans, and one to Polycarp, the Pastor in Smyrna.
- These are some quotes from those letters:
- His remains were brought back to Antioch.
- Ignatius’ attitude toward martyrdom exceeds the genuine apostolic resignation which is equal willing to depart or remain. He degenerates into morbid fanaticism. This is an age when martyrdom was sought and glorified.
- Knew the apostles and was one of John’s disciples
- John placed his as the bishop of Smyrna.
- He had trained Irenaeus and was friends with Ignatius and Papias.
- He was captured as an 86 year old man and burnt at the stake in Smyrna.
- His last days, capture, and death are recorded in the letter “The martyrdom of Polycarp”
Disciples of the Apostles and Early Bishops
|In Ephesus||In Jerusalem||In Antioch||In Rome|
|Paulplaced Timothy in position in Ephesus|
|John, the apostle, arrived from Jerusalem in 66 AD|
|Polycarp(70-155) was a disciple of John. He was the bishop in Smyrna, near Ephesus. Polycarp trained and sent Irenaeus (115-202) to Gaul (France) and Irenaeus trained Hippolytus (170-236) who went to Rome to oppose the bishop.|
|Papias, was a bishop in Hierapolis (by Colosse and near Ephesus). Papias’ book Sayings of the Lord has been lost but is heavily quoted by early church writers.|
|Ignatiuswas appointed to Antioch|
|Polycrates, (130-196), was the 8th bishop of Ephesus. He knew Polycarp and Irenaeus. Wrote to the Roman bishop Victor concerning Easter and was cut off from the Roman church until Irenaeus interceded.|James, the Lord’s brother, was killed in 63 AD Simeon, the son of Clopas, followed James as bishop of Jerusalem Justus Zacchaeus Tobias Benjamin John Matthias Philip Seneca Justus II Levi Ephres Joseph Judas, (died 148) of the family of Jesus, the 15th bishop and last Hebrew bishop because in 135 AD Hadrian put down a Jewish revolt and Jews were forbidden to enter Jerusalem Marcus,the first gentile bishop of Jerusalem Cassian, and the list continues. . . FirstPaul and Peter Evodiusa pagan convert of Peter led the church of Antioch Ignatiuswas the third bishop of Antioch until the time of Trajan in 117 AD. According to Eusebius Peter appointed him. Heron, (107-127) Cornelius,(127-154) Eros,(154-169) Theophilus,(169-182), wrote books, we still have his Apology to Autolycum. Born a pagan but became a Christian by reading Scriptures. Kept Gnostics out of Antioch Maximus I, (182-191) Serapion,(191-211), wrote several works, including a pamphlet against the Gospel of Peter. Linusof 2 Tim. 4:21 led church in Rome. Irenaeus says apostles placed him Cletuskilled by Domitian Clement, in Phil.4:3 exiled and martyred around 98. Evaristus, 100-109 Alexander I, holy water introduced, made additions to liturgy. Beheaded by Trajan. Sixtas, ruled during Emperor Hadrian Telesphorus, (125-136) listed celebrating Easter on Sunday not Passover; martyred Hyginus, organized ranks and positions in church; Gnostics Valentine & Cerdo came to Rome. Pius I, born a slave; brother, Hermas, wrote Shepherd; Excommunicated Marcion (142-155) Anicetus, (155-166) visited by Polycarp concerning Easter; Manichaeism; martyred. Soter,wrote to Corinth, martyred Eleutherius(174-189) – dealt with Montanism Victor I, (189-198), asserted Roman Church authority; imposed Roman’s Easter date by threatening excommunication; Latin replaced Greek.
- Its roots go back to the days of Paul and John. Both seem to deal with the false concepts in Colossians and 1 John.
- Christian tradition connects the founding of it to Simon Magus, who Peter rebukes in Acts
- Gnosticism sprang from the natural desire of humans to explain the origin of evil.
- Since evil can be associated with matter and flesh, the Gnostics tried to develop a philosophical system to disassociate God, who is spirit, from evil, matter and flesh.
- The second question it sought to answer was the origin of man. They did this by combining Greek philosophy and Christian theology. The Corinthians did this and were rebuked in First Corinthians 1 and 2.
- If the Gnostics had succeeded Christianity would have been reduced to a philosophical system.
- Dualism was one of their main statements of faith. The Gnostics insisted on a clear distinction between material and spiritual and a distinction between evil and good. Their conclusion: God could not have created the world.
- The gap between the world and God was bridged by a series of emanations that formed a hierarchy.
- One of these, known as Jehovah of the Old Testament, had rebelled and created the world. The Gnostics did not like the God of the Old Testament.
- To explain Jesus Christ they embraced a doctrine known as Docetism. Docetism teaches that since matter is evil Jesus did not have a human body. Either he was a phantom or the spirit of Christ came on the man Jesus between his baptism but left before his death.
- Salvation might begin with faith, but is only for the soul.
- The special knowledge (gnosis) that Christ exposed while here was of far greater benefit.
- Irenaeus refutes gnosticism in “Against Heresies”
- In 140 Marcion went to Rome and embraced gnosticism and developed it. Marcion was the first to develop a New Testament canon that he could use to match his Gnostic doctrine. This caused the church to begin to recognize certain books as scripture and others as less than God-breathed.
Marcion and the Gnostic Canon of Scripture
Marcion, the Gnostic, rejected the entire Old Testament and considered Matthew, John, Luke, I & II Timothy and Titus to be false and heretical. He accepted the following Christian books to support his Gnostic doctrine but only after changes had been made to each of them:
- Native of Asia Minor
- As a youth he had seen and heard Polycarp in Smyrna.
- He mentions Papias frequently and must have known him
- Became bishop of Lyons, Gaul (Spain) when the bishop died in persecution
- Lyons was a missionary church of Asia Minor
- Lived in Lyons during the persecution of 177
- Took a letter to the Roman bishop Eleutherus from the confessors
- Roman Bishop Victor was complelling the Asian churches to celebrate Easter on a different date.
- Irenaeus tried to protect Asian churches from Roman Bishops pretensions and aggression
- Roman Bishop Victor cut them off from communion.
- Irenaus says earlier Roman bishops didn’t demand agreement on this issue.
- Irenaus appeals to other bishops for support.
- Irenaus was martyred under Emperor Septimius Severus
- 150-155, Smyrna Bishop Polycarp visits Rome Bishop Anicetus. The issue comes up, is not resolved, Polycarp departs in peace saying this is how he celebrated Easter with John
- 170, the same controversy develops in Laodicea but is dealt with in peace
- 190-194, Rome Bishop Victor requires the Asian churches to abandon their Easter practices. The new Ephesian Bishop Polycrates appeals with a letter which is still in existence today. Victor wouldn’t listen, calls them heretics, excommunicates them and would not send them communion elements. Irenaeus interecedw by quoting Colossians 2:16: “The apostles have ordered that we should, ‘Judge no one in meat or in drink, or in respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabath day.’ ”
- The time of the Jewish Passover and the Easter fast created a violent controversy
- The issue becomes complicated and is not yet cleared up
- The issue was purely ritualistic and involved no doctrine
- Too much stress was laid on external uniformity
- Asia Minor’s views:
- Followed Jewish chronology
- Followed John and Philip’s example
- They celebrated the Christian for of the Passover on Nisan 14 and at the end of the day they broke their Easter fast with communion and the Love Feast
- Roman Church view:
- Appealed to early custom of celebrating Jesus death on a Friday
- Celebrated Easter always on a Sunday after the March full moon
- Nearly all the churches did it this way
- The Roman practice created an entire holy week of fasting to recall Lord’s suffering
- The Problem to the Roman Church: Part of the universal church was celebrating and feasting the Lord’s resurrection while another part of the world church was still fasting his death.
- The Nicean Council of 325 established as a law for the whole church by saying:
- The last trace of the “heretics” from Asia was seen in the 500’s AD
St. Peter (c.33-67AD)
Clement I (88-97)
Alexander I (105-15)
Sixtus I (115-25)
Pius I (140-55)
Victor I (189-99)
Calixtus 1 (217-22)
Urban I (222-30)
Lucius I (253-54)
Stephen I (254-57)
Sixtus II (257-58)
Felix I (269-74)
Marcellus I (308-09)
Sylvester I (314-35)
Julius I (337-52)
Felix II (353-65)
Damasus I (366-84)
Anastasius I (399-401)
Innocent I (401-17)
Boniface I (418-22)
Celestine I (422-32)
Sixtus III (432-40)
Leo I (440-61)
Felux III (II) (483-92)
Gelasius I (492-96)
Anastasius II (496-98)
John I (523-26)
Felix IV (III) (526-30)
Boniface II (530-32)
John II (533-35)
Agapetus I (535-36)
Pelagius I (556-61)
John III (561-74)
Benedict I (575-79)
Pelagius II (579-90)
Gregory I (590-604)|
|Ninth CenturyStephen IV (816-17) Paschal I (817-24) Eugene II (824-27) Valentine (827) Gregory IV (827-44) John VIII (844) Sergius II (844-47) Leo IV (847-55) Benedict III (855-58) Anastasius III (855) Nicholas I (858-67) Adrian II (867-72) John Vlll (872-82) Marinus I (882-84) Adrian III (884-85) Stephen V (Vl) (885-91) Formosus (891-96) Boniface Vl (896-96) Stephen Vl (Vll) (896-97) Romanus (897-97) Theodore II (897-97) John IX (898-900) Tenth Century Benedict IV (900-3) Leo V (903) Christopher (903-4) Sergius III (904-11) Anastasius III (911-13) Lando (913-14) John X (914-28) Leo Vl (928) Stephen Vll (928-31) John Xl (931-35) Leo Vll (936-39) Stephen VIII (IX) (939-42) Marinus II (942-46) Agapetus II (946-55) John Xll (955-64) Leo Vlll (963-65) Benedict V (964-66) John Xlll (965-72) Benedict Vl (973-74) Benedict Vll (974-83) John XIV (983-84) Boniface VII (984-5) John XV (985-96) Gregory V (996-99) Sylvester II (999-1003) Eleventh Century John XVII (1003) John XVIII (1004-9) Sergius IV (1009-12) Benedict Vlll (1012-24) Gregory VI (1012) John XIX (1024-32) Benedict IX (1032-44) Sylvester lll (1045) Gregory Vl (1045-46) (John Gratian Pierleoni) Clement II (1046-47) (Suitgar, Count of Morsleben) Damasus II (1048) (Count Poppo) Leo IX (1049-54) (Bruno, Count of Toul) Victor II (1055-57) (Gebhard, Count of Hirschberg) Stephen IX (X) (1057-58) (Frederick of Lorraine) Nicholas II (1059-61) (Gerhard of Burgundy) Alexander II (1061-73) (Anselmo da Baggio) Honorius II (1061-64) Gregory Vll (1073-85) (Hildebrand of Soana) Clement III (1080-1100) Victor III (1086-87) (Desiderius, Prince of Beneventum) Urban II (1088-99) (Odo of Chatillon) Paschal II (1099-1118) (Ranieri da Bieda) Theodoric (1100-2) Albert (1102) Sylvester IV (1105)||Alexander III (1159-81) (Orlando Bandinelli)Victor IV (1159-64) Paschal III (1164-68) Calixtus III (1168-78) Innocent III (1179-80) (Lando da Sessa) Lucius III (1181-85) (Ubaldo Allucingoli) Urban III (1185-87) (Uberto Crivelli) Gregory Vlll (1187) (Alberto del Morra) Clement III (1187-91) (Paolo Scolari) Celestine III (1191-98) (Giacinto Boboni-Orsini) Innocent III (1198-1216) (Lotario de Conti di Segni) Thirteenth Century Honorius III (1216-27) (Cencio Savelli) Gregory IX (1227-41) (Ugolino di Segni) Celestine IV (1241) (Goffredo Castiglione) Innocent IV (1243-54) (Sinibaldo de Fieschi) Alexander IV (1254-61) (Rinaldo di Segni) Urban IV (1261-64) (Jacques PantalŽon) Clement IV (1265-68) (Guy le Gros Foulques) Gregory X (1271-76) (Tebaldo Visconti) Innocent V (1276) (Pierre de Champagni) AdrianV (1276) (Ottobono Fieschi) John XXI (1276-77) (Pietro Rebuli-Giuliani) Nicholas III (1277-80) (Giovanni Gaetano Orsini) Martin IV (1281-85) (Simon Mompitie) Honorius IV (1285-87) (Giacomo Savelli) Nicholas IV (1288-92) (Girolamo Masci) Celestine V (1294) (Pietro Angelari da Murrone) Boniface Vlll (1294-1303) (Benedetto Gaetani) Fourteenth Century Benedict Xl (1303-04) (Niccol˜ Boccasini) Clement V (1305-14) (Raimond Bertrand de Got John XXII (1316-34) (Jacques Dueze) Nicholas V (Pietro di Corbara) Benedict XII (1334-42) (Jacques Fournier) Clement Vl (1342-52) (Pierre Roger de Beaufort) Innocent VI (1352-62) (ƒtienne Aubert) Urban V (1362-70) (Guillaume de Grimord) Gregory Xl (1370-78) (Pierre Roger de Beaufort, the Younger) Urban Vl (1378-89) (Bartolomeo Prignano) Clement VII (1378-94) (Robert of Geneva) Boniface IX (1389-1404) (Pietro Tomacelli) Benedict XIII (1394-1423) (Pedro de Luna) Fifteenth Century Innocent Vll (1404-6) (Cosmato de Migliorati) Gregory Xll (1406-15) (Angelo Correr) Alexander V (1409-10) (Petros Philargi) John XXIII (1410-15) (Baldassare Cossa) Martin V (1417-31) (Ottone Colonna) Clement VIII (1423-29) Benedict XIV (1424) Eugene lV (1431-47) (Gabriele Condulmer) Felix V (1439-49) (Amadeus of Savoy) Nicholas V (1447-55) (Tommaso Parentucelli) Calixtus III (1455-58) (Alonso Borgia) Pius II (1458-64) (Aeneas Silvio de Piccolomini) Paul II (1464-71) (Pietro Barbo) Sixtus IV (1471-84) (Francesco della Rovere) Innocent Vlll (1484-92) (Giovanni Battista Cibo) Alexander Vl (1492-1503) (Rodrigo Borgia)||Sixteenth CenturyPius III (1503) (Francesco Todoeschini-Piccolomini) Julius II (1503-13) (Giuliano della Rovere) Leo X (1513-21) (Giovanni de Medici) Adrian Vl (1522-23) (Hadrian Florensz) Clement Vll (1523-34) (Giulio de Medici) Paul III (1534-49) (Alessandro Farnese) Julius III (1550-55) (Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte) Marcellus II (1555) (Marcello Cervini) Paul IV (1555-59) (Gian Pietro Caraffa) Pius IV (1559-65) (Giovanni Angelo de Medici) Pius V (1566-72) (Antonio Michele Ghislieri) Gregory Xlll (1572-85) (Ugo Buoncompagni) Sixtus V (1585-90) (Felice Peretti) Urban Vll (1590) (Giambattista Castagna) Gregory XIV (1590-91) (Niccol˜ Sfondrati) Innocent IX (1591) (Gian Antonio Facchinetti) Clement Vlll (1592-1605) (Ippolito Aldobrandini) Seventeenth Century Leo Xl (1605) (Alessandro de Medici-Ottaiano) Paul V (1605-21) (Camillo Borghese) Gregory XV (1621-23) (Alessandro Ludovisi) Urban Vlll (1623-44) (Maffeo Barberini) Innocent X (1644-55) (Giambattista Pamfili) Aleander Vll (1655-67) (Fabio Chigi) Clement IX (1667-69) (Giulio Rospigliosi) Clement X (1670-76) (Emilio Altieri) Innocent Xl (1676-89) (Benedetto Odescalchi) Alexander Vlll (1689-91) (Pietro Ottoboni) Innocent Xll (1691-1700) (Antonio Pignatelli) Eighteenth Century Clement Xl (1700-21) (Gian Francesco Albani) Innocent Xlll (1721-24) (Michelangelo dei Conti) Benedict Xlll (1724-30) (Pietro Francesco Orsini) Clement Xll (1730-40) (Lorenzo Corsini) Benedict XlV (1740-58) (Prospero Lambertini) Clement Xlll (1758-69) (Carlo Rezzonico) Clement XIV (1769-74) (Lorenzo Ganganelli) Pius Vl (1775-99) (Gianangelo Braschi) Nineteenth Century Pius Vll (1800-23) (Barnaba Chiaramonti) Leo Xll (1823-29) (Annibale della Genga) Pius Vlll (1829-30) (Francesco Saverio Gastiglioni) Gregory XVI (1831-46) (Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari) Pius IX (1846-78) (Giovanni Mastai-Ferretti) Leo Xlll (1878-1903) (Gioacchino Pecci) Twentieth Century Pius X (1903-14) (Giuseppe Sarto) Benedict XV (1914-22) (Giacomo della Chiesa) Pius Xl (1922-39) (Achille Ratti) Pius Xll (1939-58) (Eugenio Pacelli) John XXIII (1958-63) (Angelo Roncalli) Paul Vl (1963-78) (Giovanni Battista Montini) John Paul I (1978) (Albino Luciani) John Paul II (1978-) (Karol Jozef Wojtyla) Twenty-First Century John Paul II (1978-2005) (Karol Jozef Wojtyla) Benedict XVI (2005-) (Joseph Ratzinger)|
- A Christian apologist trained in philosophy (Stoicism and Platonism) and became a Christian.
- He became the most notable writer of this century
- He was born in Palestine and searched energetically for truth as a young man in philosophical schools. While meditating alone by the sea side one day he was approached by an old man who exposed the weaknesses of his thinking and pointed him to the Jewish prophets who bore witness to Christ.
- Justin took this new faith back into the philosophical schools.
- His writings vigorous and earnest. They are written under the threat of persecution and are an urgent appeal to reason.
- He wrote “First Apology” to the Emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161) to clear away prejudice and misunderstanding about Christianity.
- In his “Dialogue with Trypho” he recounts an actual encounter in Ephesus with a Jew who accused Christians of breaking the Jewish law and worshipping a man. The debate was conducted with respect and courtesy on both sides, despite strong disagreement.
- He opened a school in Rome.
- Justin was martyred in Rome about 165
- From Pontus on the Black Sea, Marcion arrived in Rome in 140.
- He made a fortune as a shipowner
- His father was a bishop and excommunicated him.
- Marcion believed that the God of the Old Testament was different from the God and Father of the Lord Jesus Christ.
- Marcion taught that the God of the OT was unknowable and sheer justice. The God of the NT was revealed and was loving and gracious.
- The church of Rome excommunicated him in 144.
- Justin Martyr said Marcion was aided by the devil to blaspheme and den that God was the creator.
- Tertullian wrote “Against Marcion” about 207 and called him a formidable foe of true Christian doctrine.
- Marcion stated that Jesus was notborn of a woman but suddenly appeared in the synagogue at Capernaum in 29 AD.
- He taught that since creation was not the work of the true God the body must be denied.
- Marcion recognized Polycarp in Rome in 155 and Polycarp replied, “I recognize you as the firstborn of Satan.”
- The followers of Marcion were called Marcionites. Constantine absolutely forbade their meeting for worship. Most were absorbed into newer heretical teaching of Mani and Manicheism. There were reports of them in the 400’s. The council at Trullo 692 made provision for the reconciliation of Marcionites. There was lingering remains as late as the 900’s.
BOOKS from Galyn's Shelf:
- Ante-Nicene Fathers, by Alexander Roberts, D.D. and James Donaldson, LL.D., 10 volumes, Hendrickson Pulishers, Peabody, Mass. 1995
- Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 1, by Philip Schaff, 14 volumes, Hendrickson Pulishers, Peabody, Mass. 1995
- Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 2, by Philip Schaff, 14 volumes, Hendrickson Pulishers, Peabody, Mass. 1995
- History of the Christian Church by Philip Schaff, five volumes, Eerdmans Printing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1910
- Great Leaders of the Christian Church by John D. Woodbridge, Moody Press, Chicago, 1988
- The 100 Most Important Events in Christian History by A. Kenneth Curtis, J. Stephen Lang, Randy Petersen, Baker Book House Co., Grand Rapids, 2004
- Christianity Through the Centuries, by Earle E. Cairns, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1996
- Dictionary of Christian Biography, edited by Michael Walsh, The Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minnesota, 2001
- A Dictionary of Christian Biography, by Henry Wace, D.D. and William C. Piercy, M.A., Hendrickson PUblishers, Peabody, Mass., 1994
- A History of Christianity, by Kenneth Scott Latourette, two volumes, Prince Press, an imprint of Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 2003
- Exploring Church History, by Perry Thomas, World Publishing, Nashville, TN, 2005
- Chronological and Background Charts of Church History, by Robert C. Walton, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1986
- Handbook of Denominations in the United States, by Frank S. Mead and Samuel S. Hill, Abingdon Press, Nashville, 1985
- The Complete Guide to Christian Denominations, by Ron Rhodes, Harvest House PUblishers, Eugene, Oregon, 1995
- Nelson's Guide to Denominations, by J. Gordon Melton, Thomas Nelson, Nashville, Tenn., 2007
- Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity, by Francis Legge, University Books, New Hyde Park, NY, 1965
- The Heritics, by Walter Nigg, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc, 1962
- Heresies, by Harold O.J. Brown, Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Mass., 1988
- Documents of the Christian Church, by Henry Bettenson, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1967
- Early Christian Doctrines, J. N. D. Kelly, Prince Press, an imprint of Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 2003
- Christendom, Roland H. Bainton, Harper and Row, Pulishers, New York, NY, 1966
- Eerdmans' Handbook to the History of Christianity, Dr. Tim Dowley, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1977
- Principles of Monasticism, by Maurus Wolter, B. Herder Book Co., London, 1962
- History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages, by Etienne Gilson, Mandom House, New York, NY, 1955
- The Reformation, by Earnest G. Schwiebert, Fortress Press, Minneapolis, MN, 1996
- The Apostolic Fathers, by J. B. Lightfoot and J. R. Harmer, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1984
- God's Peoples, by Paul R. Spickard and Kevin M. Cragg, Baker Books, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1994
80. Church History - 64-117 AD - Early Church Leaders
81. Church History - 117-200 AD - Easter, Gnostics, Montanism
82. Church History - 200-312 AD - Origin, Cyprian, Persecutions
- An apologist and theologian from Carthage, North Africa
- Born in the home of a roman centurion.
- Became a proficient lawyer.
- He taught public speaking and practiced law in Rome.
- The greatest of the church writers until Augustine.
- He was the first to write major works in Latin. He then was the first to use many of the technical words common in Christian theological debates even today.
- His logical Latin mind developed a sound Western theology and led to the defeat of much of the false doctrine that could not stand against his logic and reasoning.
- Two other great North African Latin writers would follow from him: Cyprian and Augustine
- Tertullian wrote in a witty and vigorous style. He pursued all who contradicted him with sarcastic irony.
- He wrote the famous line, “the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church.”
- His strict moral views led him to join the Montanists around 202.
- “Apology” was his masterpiece where he argued that Christianity should be tolerated
- “Against Marcion” defended the use of the Old Testament by the Christian church
- “Against Praxeas” develops the doctrine of the Trinity. Tertullian had two things against Praxeas: one, his opposition to the Montanist ‘new prophecy,’ two, Praxeas’s view of God the Father.
- The church had become formal and was lead by human leadership .
- A man called Montanus attempted to confront the problem of a Spiritless, formal church
- He opposed the rise to prominence of the bishop in the local church.
- Montanus began to stress the second coming of Christ and the ministry of the Holy Spirit.
- In his zeal he taught extreme concepts such as: inspiration was immediate and continuous, that he himself was the paraclete that the Holy Spirit spoke through as he had Paul and Peter
- His eschatology was also extravagant: He believed that the Kingdom would come down and be set up at Pepuza, Phrygia.
- He and his followers followed strict asceticism: no second marriages, many fasts, and only dry food. They prophesied, spoke in tongues, had visions and got caught up in intense religious excitement.
- Two prophetesses accompanied Montanus: Prisca and Maximilla
- Their oracles said, “Do not hope to die in bed. . .but as martyrs.” Today tombstones in Pyrygia attest to the boldness of the Montanist Christians.
- Maximilla predicted: “After me there will be no prophecy, but he End.”
- He had considerable influence in North Africa, which include the conversion of Tertullian to Montanism. Tertullian allowed their strict asceticism to influence his writings at times. He refused forgiveness for serious sins after baptism, banned remarriage and forbid flight from persecution.
- The Constntinople Council in 381 condemned Montanism and said they should be looked at like pagans
- The Montanist were not heretics. They were fanatics.
- Their prophecies never came true.
- They caused a disruption as the church was trying to establish the New Testament canon.
- The Montanist are a warning to the church that they must maintain a connection with the Spirit of God and the emotions of man while not forsaking the doctrine and the organization of the Church.
- Born in Alexandria, Egypt.
- Father, Leonides, was a Greek. Mother was a Jew.
- His father taught him the scriptures. His mother taught him to speak and sing in Hebrew
- Origen became a student of Clement of Alexandria.
- When Origen was 16 his father was put in prison for being a Christian. Origen wrote him a letter asking his father to allow no thought of his family to distract his commitment to martyrdom.
- Leonides was put to death and his property confiscated.
- The Christian school in Alexandria suffered greatly from the persecution of Emperor Severus at this time. The teachers and leaders had fled or died.
- By the age of 18 Origen had become the head of the Alexandrian Christian school
- Origen had collected a very valuable library of books.
- Alexandria’s bishop Demetrius appointed Origen to the official position in the school
- Origen sold his library for a daily annuity that he lived on for many years.
- People flocked to his lectures
- He led a simple life in order to fulfill the precepts of the gospel:
- Went barefoot
- Wore his one and only robe
- Slept on the ground
- Limited his food
- Limited his sleep
- Applied Mt. 19:12
- This continued for 12 happy years until he was about 30.
- In 205 Origen writes “Against Celsus” to refute pagan criticism of Christianity.
- Heretics and Gentiles attended his lectures.
- One of his students, Heracles, helped take over some of the teaching responsibilities. Heracles would become the next bishop of Alexandria.
- In 215 unusual violence broke out in Alexandria, Eguypt and Origen fled to Caesarea
- His childhood friend, Alexander, was now bishop in Jerusalem and begged him to expound the scriptures.
- PROBLEM: Origen was not ordained. The Alexandrian Bishop Demetrius told Origen to return to Alexandria.
- In 219 Origen returns to Alexandria and began to write expositions of scripture
- Ambrose provide him with 7 shorthand scribes to take down his comments and the scribes to make copies. (Ambrose had been a Marcionite until Origen properly taught him.)
- Origen’s writing was original and bold.
- His “Commentary on the Gospel of John” made an impact on interpretation.
- His “On First Principles” made an impact on Christian speculation.
- Demetrius, bishop of Alexandria, was startled by Origen’s boldness and wished to control it and his influence.
- In 226, Demetrius organized a synod of bishops that would not allow Origen to stay or teach in Alexandria.
- Demetrius got Rome to reject Origen
- Origen went back to Caesarea and taught and wrote for the next 20 years.
- In Caesarea he starts a new school and produced a continual succession of distinguished students.
- In 235-237 Origen’s work was interrupted by Emperor Maximin’s persecution.
- Ambrose died in this persecution
- In 248 Origen was in contact with Emperor Philip and his wife Severa.
- Decius overthrew Emperor Philip. In 250 the persecution of Decius broke out and Emperor Decius came after Origen since he had associated himself with Philip.
- Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, died in this persecution.
- Origen himself suffered the torture of chains, the iron collar and the rack, but never died.
- Emperor Decius dies in two years.
- Origen is set free but his health is broke and he dies at the age of 71 and is buried in Tyre.
- Origen’s weakness was his allegorical approach to scripture interpretation which had a negative effect on the church until correct interpretation was reestablished during the Reformation in the 1500’s.
- Cyprian was rich, cultured and headed for hight government office.
- He became a Christian in 246.
- He said, “A second birth created me a new man by means of the Spirit breated from heaven.”
- Cyprian dedicated himself to celibacy, poverty and Bible study.
- In 248 he was made bishop of Carthage, North Africa.
- He fled during the persecution of Emperor Decian in 250.
- Many people stayed behind and confessed Christ. This earned them greater spiritual prestige and the title of “confessor.”
- Cyprian had a difficult time running the church and the “confessors” by letter while in hiding since many church leaders scorned fleeing. Cyprian had lost face.
- When he returned he found many who had neither confessed nor fled, but had lapsed under persecution and denied Christ.
- Cyprian returned from hiding in 251.
- The “confessors” urged for leniency for those who “lapsed” and denied the faith.
- Cyprian and the bishops fixed stricter terms for readmitting them to the church.
- The “lapsed” simply left the church and started their own. To oppose their action, Cyprian wrote his most important work, “The Unity of the Church.” In this work Cyprian develops the thought that the Spirit’s gifts of life and salvation were restricted to the catholic (main) church. He argued against Stephen, the bishop of Rome, that these “lapsed” people needed to be rebaptised to reenter the mainline church after having gone to unofficial churches.
- He was banished by Emperor Valerian. Cyprian tried to hide but was captured and put to death.
- Cyprian believed:
- all bishops were in theory equal
- all ministers were priest (as in OT priesthood)
- the Lord’s supper was the sacrifice of the cross
- the church depended for its unity on their harmony and equality
- Cyprian was a clear-headed administrator but a simple minded theologian.
- His influence on the later Western church was immense and largely harmful. He set the stage for the strong hold of the Roman Catholic church and laid the foundation for the practice of mass and the priesthood.
Church Fathers from 150-300
|Years||Loction||Life and Works|
Gaul||Disciple of Polycarp (who was a disciple of John) Missionary, Bishop, Apologist 177 carried a letter to Rome concerning Montanism Opposed Gnosticism Premillennial Eschatology Wrote:|
Jerusalem||Trained in Pagan philosophy
Used the allegorical method of Scripture interpretation
Was the head of the Alexandrian Christian school
|Tertullian||150-212||Carthage||Son of a Roman officer and trained in law
A great apologist
Wrote against heretics, Gnostics and Marcion
Explained the trinity
Joined the Montanist|
|Hippolytus||170-236||Rome||Follower of the Novatian schism
Believed a real difference between Son (logos) & Father
Fell into disagreement with the incompetent Roman bishop
Formed own church and became an antipope
Banished to the island of Sardinia in 235 and died there|
Caesarea||A student of Clement
Advanced Allegorical interpretation of scripture
Ruined most of eschatology and set stage for middle ages
Exiled by church enemies
Died in prison after Roman torture|
|Cyprian||200-258||Carthage||Was converted at the age of 46 in 246
Was made bishop of Carthage at the age of 48 in 248
Hides during Decian persecution. Others fled.
He established these doctrines:|
|There is only one true church (his),|
|there is no salvation outside the one church,|
|the bishop was the high priest,|
|the church was the new Israel,|
|the Lord’s supper (Eucharist) was the new sacrifice|
- Mani was a Jewish Christian who received “revelations” from God and called himself an apostle of Jesus Christ
- He carried a book and a staff, wore flamboyant colors (a blue cloak, red and green covered his legs), cast out demons and since he made a picture book to propagate his doctrine to the illiterate
- Mani taught a dualistic religion with two independent, but opposite, eternal principles: Light and Darkness or God and Matter
- His gospel taught that Jesus and others had come to release the souls of light from the prisons of their bodies
- Mani’s revelation was considered by his followers as the final and universal revelation. It was called Manicheism and zealous missionaries advanced this heresy which began to threatened Christianity.
- Augustine followed Manicheism between the ages of 19-29
- A small puritanical group which split off from the church in Rome
- Novatian, their founder, was defeated in the election for Roman bishop in 251.
- The issue was how do deal with those who renounced Christ in Decius persecution
- Novatian refused to receive back anyone who had “lapsed”
- Novatian was a gifted theologian, an early Latin writer.
- Most important writing was on the Trinity.
- Novatian was martyred by Emperor Valerian in 258
- Novantianists were theologically orthodox and spread quickly in the 250’s.
- They set up a rival bishop in Carthage.
- They built up a network of small congregations and called themselves “the pure ones” in comparison to the other impure churches who were lax towards sinners.
- Those joining the Novatianist from main church had to be baptized again.
- A Novatianist bishop was present at the Council of Nicaea in 325
- The main church treated them as heretics until 326 when Constantine granted them tolerance
- The Novatianist clergy were allowed to retain their rank if they returned to the ‘catholic church’ around 325
- Through time they were absorbed back into the main line (catholic) church
- Father of Monasticism and famous hermit
- From Kome, Upper Egypt
- Son of a prosperous Coptic family
- In 269, age 20, gave away his possessions and withdrew from society to lead an ascetic life
- His life of holiness gave him such a reputation that others went to live in caves near him.
- Each man lived as a hermit alone in his cave
- In 285 he retired into complete isolation where he suffered his famous temptations
- In 305 he emerged to give his disciples a rule.
- He re-emerged during the Arian conflict to support Athanasius.
- Anthony died at the age of 105.
- Four main stages:
- ascetic practices carried on by many within the church
- later many withdrew from society to live as hermits
- many followed and lived close to these hermits and looked to them for leadership
- these communities organized into communal life in a monastery setting
- Not all were level headed like Anthony:
- Simeon Stylites (390-459) lived buried u to his neck for several months, then decided to achieve holiness by sitting on the top of a 60 foot pillar near Antioch for 35 years.
- Ammoun never undressed of bathed after he became a hermit.
- One wandered naked for fifty years near mount Sinai
- Basil of Caesarea (330-379) popularized the communal type of monastic organization. At age 27 he gave up worldly advancement. The monks under his rule would work, pray, read the Bible, do good deeds. He discouraged extreme asceticism.
- Diocletian (284-313) became emperor as a strong military leader and at the end of a century of political chaos.
- In 285 he ended the ended the diarchy of the principate created by Caesar Augustus in 27 BC which had the senate and the emperor sharing power. He thought only a strong monarchy could save the empire. There was no room for democracy
- Out of this arose the greatest of the Christian persecutions.
- It began with the first edicts of persecution in March of 303. It ordered:
- the cessation of Christian meetings
- the destruction of the churches
- the deposition of church officers
- the imprisonment of those who persist in their testimony of Christ
- the destruction of the scriptures by fire
- A later edict ordered the accused Christians to sacrifice to the pagan gods or die.
- Eusebius writes that prisons became crowded with Christians that there was no room for criminals
- Christians were punished with loss of property, exile, imprisonment, or execution by sword or wild beasts. Some were sent to labor camps and worked to death in the mines.
- This persecution that included the burning of scriptures forced the church to decide which books were really scripture and canonical. Who wanted to risk death for a book that was not even inspired?
- While in Britain in 306 Constantine was declared emperor of the western Roman Empire
- In Rome his position was usurped by Maxentius
- In 312 Constantine challenged him.
- Constantine told the account of the events before the battle in 312 to Eusebius, the church historian. Alarmed by reports of Maxentius’ mastery of magical arts led Constantine to pray to the ‘Supreme God’ for help. Constantine then saw a cross in the noonday day “above the sun’ and with it the words, ‘Conquer by this.’
- That same night Constantine had a dream of Christ who told him to use the sign of the Chi (“C”) and the Rho (“R”) (the “ch” and the “r” of the name Christ).
- Constantine then defeated Maxentius at the battle of the Milvian Bridge.
- Constantine’s commitment to Christianity was sincere but his understanding of the Christian faith was far from orthodox.
- Constantine did not even distinguish between the Father of Jesus Christ and the divine sun.
- Constantine maintained the pagan high priest’s title of Pontifex Maximus.
- Constantine coins continued to feature some of the pagan gods
- Constantine delayed Christian baptism until the end of his life. (Although this was a custom of the day to help one avoid committing a mortal sin.)
- In 313 with the Edict of Milan he declared along with Licinius (the eastern emperor) that Christianity was no longer illegal.
- In 321 Constantine made the first day of the week a holiday and called it ‘the venerable day of the Sun’ or ‘Sunday.’
Doctrinal Splits and Heresies in the Early Church
|Name of Group or Division||Years||History and Doctrinal Characteristics of Group|
Began with pagan philosophical ideas and incorporated it into Christian doctrine
Forms of this are beginning in Paul and John’s day
Marcion (85-160) made the greatest advances with Gnostic theology
Marcion was excommunicated in 144
Re-admittance to the Church
Re-admittance to the Church
Pelagian Controversy concerning
Pelagian Controversy concerning
Pelagian Controversy concerning
Pelagian Controversy concerning
- Constantine had granted toleration of Christianity and restitution of property taken from Christians in the lands of Gaul, Spain and Britain in 306
- By 310 Maxentius had done both in Italy and Africa
- In 311 Galerius and Licinius decreed tolerance to Christianity in the Balkans and began restitution in 313.
- The Edict of Milan came in 313 when emperors Constantine and Licinius proclaimed religious tolerance through out Roman Empire to include newly acquired land taken fro Maximinus.
- The Edict of Milan came in the form of a letter from Licinius to the Governor of Bithynia in June of 313. It was sent on behalf of Emperor Licinius in the East and Emperor Constantine in the West. It was to be circulated to the governors through out the east
The Text of the Edict of Milan from 313
When I, Constantine Augustus, as well as I, Licinius Augustus, fortunately met near Mediolanurn (Milan), and were considering everything that pertained to the public welfare and security, we thought, among other things which we saw would be for the good of many, those regulations pertaining to the reverence of the Divinity ought certainly to be made first, so that we might grant to the Christians and others full authority to observe that religion which each preferred; whence any Divinity whatsoever in the seat of the heavens may be propitious and kindly disposed to us and all who are placed under our rule. And thus by this wholesome counsel and most upright provision we thought to arrange that no one whatsoever should be denied the opportunity to give his heart to the observance of the Christian religion, of that religion which he should think best for himself, so that the Supreme Deity, to whose worship we freely yield our hearts) may show in all things His usual favor and benevolence. Therefore, your Worship should know that it has pleased us
- Preview pages of Earle E. Cairns' book "Christianity Through the Centuries"
83. Church History - 312-325 AD - Heresies, Nicea
84. Church History - 330-400 AD - Constantius, Julian
311-314 Melchiades, Bishop of Rome (Miltiades)
- Suffered under Emperor Diocletian and Galerius persecutions
- Became bishop of Rome in 311
- When Constantine came to power Melchiades saw the end of persecution and the beginning of the new age of Christiandom.
- He was given the Lateran Palace by Constantine. The Lateran Palace was the ancient palace of the Roman Empire. It became the residence of the popes for the next 1,000 years. It is from this center that the Western Church would direct its affairs. Today it holds the Pontifical Museum of Christian Antiquities
- Six months into his reign the Donatists asked Constantine to intervene in Church affairs over a decision concerning who should be bishop. When the Donatists refused his councils verdict Constantine threatened to go to Africa and settle things himself:
- Constantine ordered the Donatist churches to be confiscated and their leaders banished.
- Constantines efforts were to no avail and he revoked his order. The Donatists survived for 300 more years
- Bishop of Alexandria, Egypt and a friend of Anthony of Egypt, the famous hermit
- Defender of the Christian faith who opposed Arian and Arianism before, during and after the Council of Nicea
- After the Council of Nicea his enemies (the Arians and Eusebius of Nicomedia) lied about him to Constantine who had him banished.
- Athanasius was restored from banishment by Emperor Julius I but was forced into exile four more times between 335-366
- The bishop of Alexandria put him in charge of one of the big churches in the city, Baucalis
- As a pastor he found success and gained a large following with his teaching and ascetic life
- Arius published “Thalia” where he established the unity and simplicity of the eternal God and the superiority of the Son over other created beings. The Son being created by God before time began.
- The new bishop of Alexandria, Alexander, had began to teach what Arius thought was blasphemy. Alexander taught “as God is eternal, so is the Son – when the Father, the Son, - the Son is present in God without birth, ever-begotten, an unbegotten-begotten.”
- Eusebius of Bicomedia and Eusebius of Caesarea defended Arius
- Bishop Alexander excommunicated him.
- Emperor Constantine arrived in the East in 324 and attempted himself to settle this “trifling and foolish verbal difference, the meaning of which would be grasped only by the few.”
- Emperor Constantine ordered this church council
- It was the second church council
- Nicea is modern Iznik, Turkey, a little town near the Bosporus Straits which flows between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
- July 4, 325 about 300 bishops and deacons from the Eastern half of the empire
- Constantine arrived in his imperial clothing overlaid with jewels but without his customary train of soldiers.
- Constantine spoke only briefly saying that “Division in the church is worse than war.”
- At stake was the most profound church question yet, “Who is Jesus Christ?”
- It was a new day for the church. Many of the bishops and deacons had scars from previous persecution from the emperors. A pastor from Egypt was missing an eye. One was crippled in both hands as a result of red-hot irons.
- Most of the bishops were impressed with Constantine and were willing to compromise.
- A young deacon from Alexandria, Athanasius, was not willing to compromise. Athanasius insisted that Arius’s doctrine left Christianity without a divine Savior.
- Also present was the church historian, friend of the emperor, and half-hearted supporter of Arius, Eusebius. Eusebius put forward his own creed for council approval.
- The council wanted something more specific and added, “True God of true God, begotten not made, of one substance with the Father. . .”
- The expression “one substance” was the “homoousion.”
- After long debate only two bishops did not agree with “in one Lord Jesus Christ, . . .true God of true God.”
- Constantine was pleased thinking the issue was settled.
- For the next 100 years the two views of Christ, the Nicene (Athanasius’) view and the Arian (Arius’) view battled for supremacy.
- Church people were banished, exiled and killed as power shifted as the emperor’s and church leadership switched.
- The Council of Nicea laid the cornerstone for the orthodox understanding of Jesus Christ
- The next council at Chalcedon would develop it further.
- Other issues decided at Nicea were:
- The celebration of Passover (now called Easter) was to be observed on the first Sunday after the first full moon on or after March 21
- Validity of baptism by heretics
- Lapsed Christians
The Nicean Creed from 325
|We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things visible and invisible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father, of the substance of the Father, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten not made, being of one substance|
The Church Councils
|1||Council of Jerusalem||49||Circumcision, Jewish Law, Gentiles|
|2||Council of Nicea||325||Condemn Arianism|
|3||Council of Constantinople||381||Settle Apollinarianism|
|4||Council of Ephesus||431||Nestorian Controversy; Nestorius deposed|
|5||Council of Chalcedon||451||Eutychian Controversy|
|6||Council of Constantinople II||553||Monophysites Controversy|
|7||Council of Constantinople III||680||Doctrine of the two wills of Christ|
|8||Council of Nicea II||787||Sanctioned Image Worship|
|9||Council of Constantinople IV||869||Final Schism between East and West|
|10||Council of Rome I (Lateran I)||1123||Decide Bishops are appointed by Popes|
|11||Council of Rome II (Lateran II)||1139||Effort to heal the East and West Schism|
|12||Council of Rome III (Lateran III)||1179||To Enforce Ecclesiastical Discipline|
|13||Council of Rome IV (Lateran IV)||1215||Bidding of Innocent III|
|14||Council of Lyons I||1245||Settle Quarrel with Pope and Emperor|
|15||Council of Lyons II||1274||Attempt to Unite East and West|
|16||Council of Vienne||1311||Suppress Templars|
|17||Council of Constance||1414-
1418||Heal Papal Schism; Burn Jon Huss|
|18||Council of Basal||1431-
|19||Council of Rome V||1512||Another Reform Effort|
|20||Council of Trent||1545-
1563||Counter Reformation; Latin Vulgate Sole Translation; Apocrypha Canonized; Reaffirm purgatory, relics, & more|
|21||Council of Vatican I||1869-
1870||Declare Pope Infallible|
|22||Council of Vatican II||1962-
1965||Effort to bring Christendom into one Church|
Early Church Fathers (300-500)
|Years||Location||Life and Works|
Taught in theological school in Caesarea
Friend of Constantine and recorded Constantine’s Life|
|Athanasius||296-373||Alexandria||Defended Trinitarian Doctrine
Championed the cause against Arius
Important speaker at Council of Nicea
Exiled five times|
(Asia Minor)||Raised as a Christian; studied philosophy in Athens; lived as an ascetic; 358 he established a monastic community to replace individual monks; Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia; opposed Arius; established a hospital for lepers along with a school, a hospice, and social programs.|
|Gregory of Nyssa||335-394||Cappadocia
(Asia Minor)||Great theologian. Instrumental in doctrine of the Trinity
Bishop of Nyssa in 372
Leader at the Council of Constantinople (381)|
|Gregory of Nazianzus||330-390||Cappadocia,
Constantinople||Born in a Christian family. His father was a bishop Friends with Basil and Gregory of Nyssa Preached 5|
|Ambrose||340-397||Milan||Father was a Praetorian Prefect of Gaul
Studied in Rome and became consul in Milan
Elected Bishop of Milan in 373 by the people before he had been baptized
Powerful preacher who influenced the Roman emperors|
Constantinople||Born in Antioch
A priest in Antioch and bishop at Constantinople
Called “chrysostomos”, or “golden mouthed”, because of his eloquent preaching ability
Followed the natural meaning of scripture not allegorical
Preached right through the books of the Bible
Exiled for criticizing the church and calling for reform |
Bethlehem||Studied in Rome; lived as a hermit for 3 years; was at the Council of Constantinople in 381; served as secretary to Roman Bishop Damascus; moved to Bethlehem and establishes a monastery; conflict with Origen’s teaching;|
|Theodore of Mopsuestia||350-428||Antioch||Born in Antioch
Influential representative of the thinking and interpretation of scripture practiced in Antioch
He was the leader of exegetical biblical learning
He was ascetic
His doctrine of Incarnation was condemned at Council of Ephesus in 431. Judged a heretic in 553 at Council of Constantinople. (Too close to Nestorius)
Contributed to Christology the human soul of Christ and Christ’s free moral activity in the work of redemption|
|Augustine||354-430||North Africa||Next to Paul, the most influential man in church history
His view of the church and the sacraments developed into the Roman Catholic doctrine.
His ideas are still studied: faith and reason, predestination, trinity, the problem of evil.|
|Cyril||376-444||Alexandria||Patriarch of Alexandria in 412
Vigorously opposed pagans, Novatianist, Judaizers
Involved Hypatia’s murder, a famous Pagan Philosopher
His emphasis on Christ’s divine nature evolved into the monophysite view that Christ only had one nature|
|Patrick||389-461||Ireland||Born in Britain after Rome had abandoned it
Taken captive by pirates as a boy and sold into Ireland
Escaped back to Britain and entered ministry
After a vision he returned to evangelize Ireland in 432|
|Leo the Great||390-461||Rome||Roman Bishop in 440 and became the first pope
His Christological (nature of Christ) teaching adopted by the church at council of Chalcedon in 451
He Negotiated with Attila the Hun for the removal of his barbarians from Italy in 452
Taught that the bishop of Rome held the same position as Peter which established the basis for the papacy|
|Benedict of Nurcia||480-547|| ||Born in Nurcia, Italy to a wealthy and influential family Studied in Rome
Lived as a hermit in caves but joined with other hermits
He saw the need for an organized monastic structure
His efforts became known as the Rule of St. Benedict
Benedict developed pattern for Byzantine monasticism|
353 Emperor Constantius
- Constantine’s three sons:
- Constantine II
- They killed hundreds of their father’s offspring (except Gallus and Julian who were sick and a youth when their father died in 337
- Constans slew Constantine II and then was killed by a barbarian in battle
- Constantius became sole emperor in 353
- Constantius began a violent suppression of heathen religion:
- pillaged and destroyed temples
- gave booty to the church
- prohibited all sacrifices and worship of images in Rome, Alexander, and Athens
- Obviously, many people became “Christian” (lip service)
- Constantius was an Arian and punished those who held to Nicene orthodoxy
- Athanasius said at this time:
331- 363 Emperor Julian the Apostate
- Cousin of Constantius and nephew of Constantine
- He survived the slaughter by Constantine’s sons of Constantine’s descendents because he was only six years old at the time. His father died in the slaughter.
- Although he hated the “Christianity” of Constantius he was forced to reciev a Christian education from the Arian bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia
- Julian was baptized, educated for the clerical order, ordained as a lector and prayed, fasted, celebrated the martyrs, paid reverence to the bishops and sought the blessings from the hermits
- This forced, pseudo-Christianity led the intelligent and vigorous Julian to rebel and become the heathen anti-christ known to history as Emperor Julian the Apostate. He was the last non-“Christian” emperor
- In 355, age 24, Julian became Emperor and was initiated into the Eleusianian mysteries (uniting Julian with the god’s for power) and entered Greek idolatry by practicing Theurgy (magical rituals to invoke the gods to action)
- From his position as emperor he revived mythology by spiritualizing it and uniting it with a few Christian and Oriental ideas.
- Julian was very intelligent but also believed he received direct communication with the god’s (Mupiter, Apollo, Hercules) through dreams, visions, oracles and sacrifices.
- His moral character was kept simple and embraced stoic virtues
- Julian forced the churches to return the plunder they had taken from pagan temples, decreased the public influence Christian bishops held, removed the bishop’s rights to travel at public expense and gave church property to pagans
- In his attempt to stamp out Christianity he visited the site of the temple in Jerusalem and ordered it to be rebuilt. Earthquakes and reported balls of fire from the foundation caused the work on the temple to stop.
- Julian was killed retreating from battle with the Persians in 363
- The family of Constantine was extinct upon Julian’s death
- Emperor Jovian
- Jovian, a Roman general, replaced Julian
- He restored the crosses and the church’s privileges
- He avoided interfering with the church business but favored Athanasius
- Held to the policy of religious freedom
- Held to Nicene orthodoxy but stayed out of doctrinal controversies
- Valens, his brother, ruled in the East and favored Arians and persecuted the supporters of Athanasius (Nicean orthodoxy). With the death of Valens Arianism died out in the East
- People practicing pagan religions (the priests) with magical arts, bloody sacrifices or divination were burnt alive while those joining in the worship were beaten to death with straps loaded with lead.
- Paganism died out in the city and was reported to only exist in remote villages.
- Favored Christianity and was the first emperor rejected the Roman emperor’s title of Pontifex Maximus
- Gratian removed the Altar of Victory, the gold statue of the goddess Victory, from the Roman Senate. It had been placed there by Octavian (Augustus Caesear) in 29 BC to honor his defeat of Antony and Cleopatra. The statue itself had been captured by the Romans in 272.
- Gratian confiscated the pagan temple property, abolished the privileges of the temple priests and the vestal virgins and withdrew public support of pagan religion
“By this step heathenism became like Christianity before Constantine and now in the American republic, dependent on the voluntary system, while unlike Christianity, it had no spirit of self-sacrifice, no energy of self-preservation. The withdrawal of the public support cut its life string, and left it still to exist for a time by inertia alone.”
392-395 Theodosius the Great
- Theodosius was one of Rome’s best emperors
- Supported the Nicene orthodoxy and at the Council of Constantinople in 381 he secured for the supporters of Nicene orthodoxy all the privileges of the state religion.
- Rigid laws against heretics were established which included punishment for visits to heathen temples
- Heathens were allowed to hold public office and allowed free speech. A heathen was appointed as prefect of Constantinople and educated Theodosius’ son
- During this time fanaticism of monks and Christians reached a peak of rage and destruction:
- Christians believed the pagan gods were demons that occupied the temples.
- Great works of heathen architecture were destroyed by the Christians
- The colossal statue was destroyed by Christians
- Marcellus, a bishop in Syria, was accompanied by an armed band of soldiers and gladiators that destroyed monuments and centers of heathen worship in his area.
- Hypatia, a beautiful and intelligent lady of in Alexandria and teacher of Neo-platonic philosophy, who was respected by Christians and Heathens, was seized one day in the street by fanatical monks and Christians who drug her out of her carriage then took her to the cathedral where they tore her apart and burnt her. Cyril the bishop of Alexandria had encouraged this.
“Christians are not to destroy error by force and violence, but
“Let us first obliterate the idols in the hearts of the heathen, and once they become Christians they will either themselves invite us to execution of so good a work or anticipate us in it. Now we must pray for them, and not exasperate them.”
- Ulfila raised as a Goth (his parents had been enslaved by the Goths).
- Ulfila had lived inside the Roman Empire and was sent as a missionary to the Goths, a barbaric tribe.
- In order to translate the Greek Bible into the language of the Goths Ulfilas had to first create a Gothic alphabet.
- Basil the Great
- Educated in Athens and became a teacher of rhetoric in 356
- In 357 he became a Christian, was baptized and became a hermit.
- As a hermit he wrote against heresies. He defended the deity of the Holy Spirit, explained the Trinity as one substance (ousia) but three persons (hypostasis)
- He became a bishop by 370 and established the Rule of St. Basil for monasticism that is still used in the Eastern church today
- Martin was named for Mars, the god of war, by his pagan father who was an officer at a Roman garrison in Gaul.
- After three years in the military, Martin became a Christian in 339. He remained in the Roman military until 356.
- He returned home and led his mother to Christ
- Around 360 he started the first monastery in France
- He became bishop of Tours in 370 and continued to evangelize the country and start monasteries
- There were several letters or books available for use in the church. Some came from the apostles, some from the disciples of the apostles, some came from heretics like the Gnostics, Arianians, etc. to promote their doctrines.
- Each bishop had to choose which ones they would allow to be used in their church, but the list was generally the same.
- Athanasius, the Bishop of Alexandris, sent an annual letter out. On January 7, 367 he sent a letter discussing which books should be read in his local churches. We have a copy of that letter. In it he recognizes the New Testament Canon and lists the same books that we recognize
Part of the Text of Athanasius’ Letter from January 7, 367
|Again, it is not tedious to speak of the books of the New Testament. These are: the four Gospels, according to|
Other Early Writings that Identify the Recognized New Testament:
381 Council of Constantinople
- Third Council produced four canons:
- Condemnation of all forms of Arianism, Macedonianism, Apollinarianism
- Imposed boundaries upon bishops so they did not interfere with other bishops territory
- Declared that because Constantinople is the new Rome, the Bishop of Constantinople is has the second highest position after the bishop of Rome
- Declared Maximus the rival bishop of Gregory the bishop of Constantinople.
- Bishop of Milan who was gifted in administration, preaching and theology.
- His father had been the prefect of Gaul. His family was in the imperial class in Rome
- Ambrose studied law, entered politics and became the governor of the area around Milan.
- In 374 the bishop of Milan died in the midst of an Arian conflict. Ambrose realized a riot could break out at the basilica where the election for the new bishop was to be held so he attended it himself. As Ambrose addressed the crowd they began to shout, “Ambrose for bishop!”
- Ambrose was drawn into the political arena when Emperor Valentinian sent Ambrose to successfully negotiate peace in Gaul with a usurpor to Valentinian’s throne
- In 390 the Theodosius, the emperor in the East, massacred 7,000 people in Thessalonica. Ambrose withheld the communion from Theodosius and threatened him with excommunication until he had publicly repented for seven months.
- On another occasion Ambrose withheld communion from the entire community until the emperor did what Ambrose demanded.
- The church now confronts the state when necessary to protect Christian teaching and oppose evil actions of the state
- Ambrose taught allegorically, introduced congregational singing of hymns.
- Ambrose’s preaching was influential in leading Augustine to an understanding of Christianity
- Augustine’s father was a Roman official in North Africa. His mother, Monica, was a Christian. Augustine grew up and went to school in Carthage and lived the life of a pagan. Augustine’s concubine gave him a son, Adeodatus, in 372 when he was 18.
- When Augustine was 19 he joined the heretical group Manichean, a form of Gnosticism but found it unfulfilling and turned instead to philosophy.
- For the next eleven years (until 386, age 32) Augustine taught rhetoric in Carthage and Rome.
- According to Augustine’s autobiography, “Confessions”, he was in Milan in 386 (age 32) in his backyard thinking about his spiritual condition when he heard a voice next door say, “Take up and read.” Augustine saw a Bible laying on the table and opened it and read Romans 13:13-14: “Let us behave decently, as in the daytime, not in orgies and drunkenness, not in sexual immorality and debauchery, not in dissension and jealousy. Rather, clothe yourselves with the Lord Jesus Christ, and do not think about how to gratify the desires of the sinful nature.”
- Augustine gave up his concubine, left his profession and was baptized along with his 14 year old son
- Five years later, age 37, Augustine was ordained a priest and became the bishop of Hippo five years after that at the age of 42.
- Until his death at the age of 76 Augustine administrated the church and spent his time studying and writing.
- His writings are numerous and become foundational for the next 1,000 years, even until today. Two of his books are:
- “The City of God” – As the Gothic barbarians sacked Rome in 410 the heathen blamed the Christians. Augustine responded to this accusation by writing “The City of God” between the years 413-426. In this book Augustine presents the best refutation of heathenism and vindication of Christianity until his time.
- Born in northeast Italy in a well-to-do family who sent him to study grammar and rhetoric in Rome
- Jerome gathered an advanced library of the classics and other writings
- He lived in Germany for a while then joined an ascetic group in Italy that did not last because of his:
- harsh and sarcastic talk
- lack of tact
- fiery disposition and passion
- In 372 he settled in Antioch and studied Greek then went into the desert to live as a hermit for the next three years.
- He learned Hebrew from a Jewish Christian
- Jerome returned to Rome from 382-385
- Jerome became the secretary to the Roman Bishop in 382.
- The Roman Bishop, Damascus, assigned Jerome to make a new, updated Latin translation of the Gospels and Psalms. In the next twenty years Jerome would complete the entire New Testament and then the Old Testament into Latin. It would be called the Latin Vulgate and become the official Bible of the Catholic church even to this day.
- In Rome Jerome served as a Bible teacher to the wealthy aristocracy but his sharp criticism of the worldly church caused the clergy to require his removal from the city.
- In 386 Jerome and Paula, a wealthy Christian woman from Rome, settled in Bethlehem where they each founded a monastery.
- Jerome translated the Bible into Latin in a small room in a church built over the cave of Jesus birth.
405 Latin Vulgate
- To purify and correct the Latin translation of the Bible Damascus appointed Jerome to make a new accurate translation.
- Jerome’s Latin Bible becomes the standard for the next 1,000 years
- The Old Testament was the first Latin translation taken directly from Hebrew instead of the Greek Septuagint.
- The Latin word phrase “versio vulgate” means “the published translation”
- Jerome included the apocrypha in his translation which were Jewish books not recognized by the Jews as scripture. Jerome called them “non-canonical” books in his introduction to his translation.
- By 600 Jerome’s translation was being used as much as the old Latin translations.
- By 800 it was the most accepted translation of scripture.
- It was declared authoritative and the sole Latin text of the Bible at the Council of Trent (1546). It was at this council the apocrypha was canonized.
410 The Visigoths led by Alaric Sack Rome
Pelagius and the Pelagian Controversy
- Pelagianism is an early church heresy dealing with the nature of man
- Pelegius came to Rome from Britain to teach about asceticism around 380.
- While in Rome Pelegius became familiar with Augustine’s writings and disagreed with Augustine’s views on the sovereignty of God and the free will of man.
- Pelegius fled from Rome to Carthage in 410 when Alaric sacked Rome. In Carthage Pelagius’ ideas spread rapidly and here he meet Augustine.
- Pelegius did not agree with Augustine’s concept of original sin or the process of salvation.
- Pelegius believed that mankind can choose to obey god. With his freewill men could choose to do good without God’s help. He went on to say that Adam’s sin did not effect the nature of mankind. Each man is born with the pure nature Adam was created with and has the inner ability to do good.
- Pelegius accused Augustine for being thinking like the Manichean (spirit is good and from God, flesh is corrupt and evil) that he had been and for teaching fatalism like a pagan philosopher.
- Augustine said that Adam’s sin effected the nature of all men (original sin) and that without God’s intervention and grace man could not respond to God nor could man do good. Augustine said the will of man is enslaved to sin.
- These Catholic and Protestant church councils and confessions have condemned Pelegianism: Carthage (412, 416, 418), Ephesus (431), Orange (529), Trent (1546), Helvetic (Swiss-German Reformed, 1561-66), Augsburg Confession (Lutheran, 1530), Gallican Confession (French Reformed, 1559), Belgic Confession (Reformed, 1561), The Anglican Articles (English, 1571), Canons of Dort (Reformed, 1618-19)
The Pelagian Controversy
Man is born pure without a sin nature and is able to obey God and do what is necessary to gain salvation
Man is dead in sin at birth, born with a sin nature. Salvation is given to man by God’s grace and only given to the elect chosen by God
The grace of God works with the will of man to save the man, but the process is initiated by the man
The grace of God is offered to all men. This grace enables the man to choose and do what is required for the salvation of that man
425 Barbarians settle in Roman Provinces
431 Council of Ephesus
- Fourth Council
- Nestorian Controversy and Nestorius Deposed
- Patrick is captured in Britain by pirates and take to Ireland as a slave in his youth
- Patrick escapes back to Britain and goes through monastery training
- Patrick returns as a missionary to Ireland in response to a vision
- The people Patrick converted were Celts. They had not been under Roman occupation and thus had not been influenced by the Roman way of life.
- Patrick had to overcome the Druid religion and superstition of the Irish.
- They had no cities or Roman order so the church that Patrick established did not look like the Roman church. This became known as Celtic Christianity. It would continue successfully in Ireland until the Roman church moved in two hundred years later.
451 Council of Chalcedon
- Fifth Council
- Eutychian Controversy
- They confirm the orthodox teaching that Jesus was truly God and truly man and existed in one Person
- Roman Bishop in 440 and often called the first Pope
- Asserted the primacy of the Roman bishop, against the claims of the political capital, Constantinople.
- His Christological (nature of Christ) teaching adopted by the church at council of Chalcedon in 451
- He negotiated with Attila the Hun for the removal of his barbarians from Italy in 452
- He clarified the doctrine of primacy of the bishop of Rome that taught that the Roman bishop held the same position as Peter which was authority over all the other bishops. This established the basis for the papacy.
- With the doctrinal conflicts and the barbaric invasions, Leo proved to be a great leader in difficult times
How the Church in Rome and the Roman Bishop Became Absolute
|Around 440 Leo I claimed that Jesus had given Peter authority over the whole church|
|Apostolic Succession||The apostles established churches and church leaders. It was assumed that Peter had given his authority to the leader in Rome|
|Head of Empire||Rome was the head of the empire that the church began in so it was natural to look to Rome as the head of the church|
|Size of Rome||Rome’s population, both pagan and Christian, was greater than any other city|
|Latin Language||The Greek language offers more refined and precise expressions which was great for the preservation of scripture but could be very devisive at a church council. The western world’s Latin was not as precise and so easier to align the splintered theological groups and build unity. The Greek in the East would create divisions|
|Evangelism Success||While the barbarians were conquering the West, the church was converting them. When the Muslims came into the East the eastern church did not equal the evangelism success of the West|
|City of Peter and
Paul’s Martyrdom||When the church began to seek after and honor the relics, the Roman church had the relics of the two superstars in their city|
• New Testament Canon Development http://www.ntcanon.org/table.shtml
- Early Sources that list the New Testamet canon http://www.ntcanon.org/lists.shtml
85. Church History - 400-600 AD - Augustine, Pelagius, Jerome, Leo, Greg
451-452 Attila the Hun
- Barbarians led by Attila the Hun invade Italy
- Leo the Great, bishop of Rome, negotiates with Attila for the removal of the Barbarians from Italy
- Barbarians called the Vandals pillage Rome
- United the Frankish tribes among the Germanic people.
- In 486 Clovis defeated the last Roman official in northern Gaul giving the Franks control of the area.
- In 493 he married Princess Clotilde who was a Christian
- In 496 Clovis converted to his wife’s Christian faith which was Roman Catholicism and not Arianism as many of the other barbaric tribes had become.
- Clovis’ conversion made him an ally of the Roman church and the Roman Catholic faith. With his military strength and political influence Clovis defended the Roman church and the Catholic faith in his domain
- Sixth Council
- Monophysites Controversy
- Founded a monastery before he became pope
- Tried to refuse his appointment to pope by writing a letter
- Considered the first of the medieval popes
- Due to the invading barbarians the western front of the Roman empire was abandoned and moved completely to Constantinople. This left the bishop of the Roman church to defend the city against the barbarians
- The bishop of the Roman church had the resources and the influence to be the only reliable leadership in the western part of the empire
- Many people had given their land and property to the Roman church in exchange for the forgiveness of sins so the pope used the income from these lands to:
- Build a military
- Provide for the poor
- Pay ransom for people captured by the barbarians
- Pay for treaties to preserve Rome from barbarian destruction
- Pope Gregory sent missionaries to England
- The Roman church began to evangelize the pagan Germanic tribes
- Gregory simplified the doctrines of the church so that the new converts from these barbaric lands could understand it and so Christianity could penetrate their culture.
- Gregory made several changes in the Roman Catholic liturgy
- (He did not institute the “Gregorian Calendar”. This was done in 1582 by Gregory XIII)
- The greatness and influence that Gregory had can be balanced by the definition he preferred to use when he referred to his position as pope. He called his position “the Servant of the Servants of God.”
- Born in Ireland in a culture in turmoil. He was tall, strong, brilliant but also restless and combative. He was a great speaker and humorous
- Until the age of 42 he worked in the church as a priest and started a monastery
- In 561 Columba copied without permission Jerome’s Latin translation of Psalms and the gospels. When ordered by the priest and the local king to surrender the manuscript he had made Columba refused. This led to a tribal war between Columba’s supporters and the king. 3,000 men were killed. In guilt and sorrow Columba left Ireland and became in his words “an exile for Christ” on an isle half a mile from the coast of Scotland called Iona.
- On the isle of Iona living quarters were set up along with a library, guests houses, a church and needed industrial shops. From there Columba and his friends began to evangelize the land of Scotland. At first Columba’s goal was to replace the 3,000 souls that had died in the battle in 561
- Born in 570 in Mecca
- 610, begins to have revelations
- 613, begins to preach his revelations in Mecca
- 622, flees Mecca for Yathrib, later called Medina. Here the Jews reject his new faith and Muhammad turned his religion away from the Jews. At prayer one day Allah revealed to Muhammad not to face Jerusalem when they prayed but instead to turn 180 degrees and face Mecca. This made a clear break with the Jewish people and religion.
- Muhammad began to raid Mecca’s caravans.
- 627, Mecca responded with a failed attack on Medina
- 629, Muhammad attacks the Byzantine Empire, but fails
- 630, Muhammad defeated Mecca and entered the city
- 631, Muhammad rules most of the Arabian peninsula
- 632, Muhammad dies
- Muslim’s conquer the Middle East in three waves of military expansion:
- 622-632 under Muhammad they take the Arabian Peninsula
- 632-661 they take part of north Africa and the Sasanian (Iranian) Empire (the old Babylonian Empire). Jerusalem, Antioch and Alexandria are taken from the Christians. The building of the Dome of the Rock on the temple mound in Jerusalem begins.
- 661-750 Muslims take the rest of north Africa, cross the Strait of Gilbraltar to take Gaul (Spain) in 711. The Muslim Empire extends from the coast of the Atlantic Ocean in north Africa to the borders of modern Pakistan.
664 Synod of Whitby
- Determines that the English church will come under the authority of Rome
- Celtic Christianity in Britain, Iona and Ireland had developed its own style of Christianity that include the observance of Easter in accord with the apostle John and Polycarp in Asia (Nissan 14) contrary to the Roman Catholic church and the decision of the Nicene Council of 325.
- Doctrine of the two wills of Christ
- Completes his careful and important work Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation
- The Muslims crossed into France in 720
- In 732, Charles Martel stops Muslim invaders threatening Europe. The Muslims western expansion is finally stopped here
- An icononclast is one who destroys sacred religious images. It comes from two Greek words “eikon” which means “image, likeness” and “-klastes” which means “breaker” from the Greek word “klan”, “to break”.
- The destroying of Christian art and images by Christians trying to prevent idol worship occurred in the East. There was no conflict with images in the West.
- Arts have always viewed with different opinions by Christians. Some opinions:
- Only “Christian” art
- No art at all
- Avoid visual representations
- Example: Painting Mary
- To capture the idea of flesh being given God’s splendor Mary (flesh) was crowned in Gold (promised redemption) sitting under gilded arches being approached by a shining winged creature.
- To show the unfavorable way this portion of Christianity occurred in history one would paint Mary as ordinary in ordinary surroundings.
- It was a debate over what was sacred or holy and deserved worship.
- The clergy were set apart and so holy. Also, church buildings, martyrs and heros of faith such as hermits and monks were set apart.
- Martyrs were set apart and so holy or “saints.”
- The holiness of a saint was evaluated on the miracles that took place at their tomb, relics, or icon (image)
- The government and church encouraged this.
- Icons began to multiply
- Christians then limited their devotion to one location such as:
- St. Demetrius of Thessalonica
- The miraculous Christ-icon of Edessa, Syria
- Miracle working icon of Mary in Constantinople
- Most Christians placed faith in the icon and made no spiritual connection, thus idolatry.
- Christ’s image began to replace the image of the emperor on coins (685-711)
- In Eastern Asia Minor bishops preached against icons.
- 726 - Leo held off the Muslim attack on Constantinople and then declared his oppositioin to icons
- A mob murdered the messenger sent to replace the icon of Christ at the imperial gates
- Whole sections of the empire rebelled againsts Leo
- 730 – Leo issued an edict to destroy public icons
- The Bishop of Rome condemned those who destroyed the images. The destroyers were called iconoclast.
- The Roman Bishop got military support from the Franks
- Leo wanted the cross, the book, and the elements of Lord’s supper to be holy along with clergy and dedicated buildings.
- Leo’s son argued the only true icon’s were the bread and wine because they were the same substance as Christ.
754 Iconoclastic Synod of Constantinople
- During this council a three fold anathema was pronounced on the advocates of image-worship.
- The clergy submitted, but the monks who manufactured the pictures denounced the emperor and were subjected to imprisonment, flagellation, mutilation and death.
- This Council was later rejected by the church as being an official church council
- Leo the IV, emperor in the East at Constantinople, kept the laws against icon worship but his beautiful wife from Athens, Irene, tolerated and then favored icon worship.
- Leo IV died in 780 and his wife Irene became regent for their ten-year old son Constantine.
- Irene raised the persecuted monks to the highest dignities
- She removed the iconoclastic imperial guard with one agreeing to her views.
- Irene convened the eighth church council. It consisted of eight sessions from September 24-October 23 in 787.
- The Nicene Council nullified the decrees of the iconoclastic Synod of Constantinople in 754 (which later was rejected as a true church council)
- Acceptable images were: the cross, pictures of Christ, pictures of the Virgin Mary, pictures of angels, pictures of saints, the gospel books, relics of saints.
- They could be drawn in color or composed of Mosaic materials.
- They could be in churches, houses in streets, on walls, tables vessels and vestments.
- Homage may be paid to them by kissing, bowing burning incense, saying prayers, burning candles.
- The honor paid to the image was a representation of the honor paid to the true reality in heaven.
- The scriptures used for defense were Ex.25:17-22; Ezek. 41:1,15,19; Hebrews 9:1-5.
- Also alleged testimonies of now dead church fathers, mostly falsified and alleged miracles performed by images was used to defend the practice.
- Large numbers of former iconoclast repented and prayed together, “We all have sinned, we all have erred, we all beg forgiveness.” And they worshipped the images.
- To prevent her son from being capable of reigning and to maintain her power in the East Irene had her son’s eyes plucked out one night as he slept. She ruled for five more years and then was overthrown and exiled. She spent the rest of her life working for a living.
- The eighth church council
- Sanctioned Image worship
- During this council an image was brought in and kissed by all the delegates. At the conclusion of the council the delegates said together:
- The Second Council of Nicea is far below the first both morally and doctrinally.
- It determined the character of worship in the Eastern Church for all time and so is still significant.
- It’s decision is binding on the Roman church which had sent two papal delegates and is defended in its writings.
- The protestants disregard this council because:
- It violates the second commandment
- It violates the practice of apostolic Christianity
- The superstitions that accompanies it.
- The miracle-workings done by the Madonnas in the 19th and 20th centuries.
- The positive affects of this council is that it has saved Christian art. If the iconoclast would have been successful in their extreme methods there would be no Christian painting, sculpture, ect. It would have affected music and other expressions of the Christian faith.
- The divided kingdom consisted of an Emperor in the East and a ruling pope in the West.
- The Popes claimed power in 590 and continually increased their claim.
- Arian Christians called Lombards attacked Rome several times. The pope needed military support and called on the Franks to be his ally. This union would shape Christianity in the middle ages.
- The Franks had invaded Gaul from their homeland along the Rhine River. The Gaul’s had adopted Roman culture after Julius Caesar’s invasion. This Roman culture now went to the Franks upon their invasion of Gaul.
- Clovis (466-510) united the territory from the Rhine down into France. This helped bring stability to the area.
- Clovis accepted Christianity (496) due to:
- His wife
- Supernatural aid in battle
- Clovis’ sons were weak and just partied in the palace when they came to power so the kingdom was run by the mayor’s of the palace.
- Pepin was the first mayor (687-714)
- It was handed to an illegitimate son of his called Charles Martel (689-741)
- Charles Martel as the warrior saved the West for Christianity and the pope knew it.
- Muslims had taken Spain and were threatening Europe but were defeated at the battle of Tours in 732.
- Martel supported Boniface’s work in evangelizing the tribes beyond the Rhine
- Martle’s two sons reigned after him. One joined a monastery leaving Pepin the Great to rule as king.
- Pope Zacharias needed help against the Arian Lombards in 754 and 756.
- Pepin donated land in central Italy to the pope. This was known as the Donation of Pepin. It remained the pope’s until 1870.
- About this time a book appeared called the Donation of Constantine. Which tells the story of Constantine’s conversion and how the grateful Constantine made a huge land grant and special rights to the Bishop of Rome.
- It was a forgery but it was not proven until several centuries later. The popes did and still use it to defend their claim on land, power and position.
- In the book Constantine was healed of leprosy and baptized by the bishop Sylvester. In return Rome was to have precedence over all the other churches and this bishop was to be the supreme bishop. Constantine left the imperial palace, imperial clothing, and imperial rank to the pope. Constantine then moved East so as not to interfere with the Pope and his gift.
- The next ruler in the west, or king of the Franks, was Pepin the Great’s son Charlemagne (742-814).
- Charlemagne began to reign in his father’s place in 768.
- Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by the Pope in 800.
- Charlemagne continued the policy of being the protector of the papcy
- Charlemagne would influence everything in Western Europe.
- Charlemagne was 7 feet tall. He had a large strong body, a bright face and long white hair.
869 Constantinople Council IV
- The Ninth Church Council
- It brought about the final schism between the East and West
- The Eastern Church held a second Council of Constantinople IV in 879 to reverse the decisions and decrees of this first Council of Constantinople IV in 869
- Between 800 – 1054 the Western church experienced an inner renewal that gave it strength to deal with its existence in the shadow of the Holy Roman Empire
- The Eastern Church became conscious of this and other differences between the East and West.
Reasons for the Renewed Supremacy of the Western Roman Church Over the Eastern Church in Constantinople
Donation of Constantine
880 Muslims Loose Italy
900 Christians begin to reclaim Spain from Muslims
909 Abbey of Cluny Founded
- Monastic reforms by the founders of the abbey of Cluny called Cluniac Reforms.
- These monasteries contributed to the supremacy of the papacy.
- By the 900 the monasteries had become wealthy and corrupt.
- The earlier ideas of service had been replaced with:
- ideal of individual salvation
- an easy life of wealth in the monastery
- In Eastern France at Cluny in 909 a monastery was founded that was free from secular or episcopal control. It was self-governed and under the pope’s protection.
- Two leaders (Abbots) did their work so well in this monastery that many others reorganized along the same line. The leaders were:
- Berno (910-926)
- Odo (927-944)
- These Abbots would appoint the leaders in new monasteries and oversee them.
- This organized all the monasteries under the Abbot of Cluny who worked with the pope.
- The Cluniac leaders called for reform:
- The condemned simony (buying and selling of church offices for money)
- They condemned nepotism (the practice of showing favoritism to relatives in appointments to church positions.)
- Celibacy – the clergy could no longer keep concubines nor could they marry. Their attention was not to be to family but to the church.
- Ascetic life was restored.
- Good schools were formed. These schools made Latin the common language of the middle ages.
- The Cluniac monasteries resulted in:
- Missionary Efforts
- Crusades against Muslims in the Holy Land
- This order of monasteries came to an end in 1790.
- The splendid Frankish Empire of Charlemagne began to dissolve quickly at his death because the empire was dependent on his personal genius and energy.
- Teutonic Principle – Emperors land divided between sons. Charlemagne’s son began this and had to divide the empire into three sections. They warred until it was divided into Germany and France with a 100 mile section between them in 843.
- Vikings from Sweeden, Denmark, and Norway invaded any town or monastery along the coast or on the shores of rivers. This led to the rapid decline of the fallen Holy Roman Empire. Vikings settled in England and eventually merged with Anglo-Saxons. The Christina culture of England was set back.
- Decline of city life and trade forced people back to the farm. Public power went into private hands of land owners. There were three groups:
- Protectors, the land owners known as knights
- Producers, the economic foundation known as serfs
- Prayers, the priestly class
- Feudalism was a system of political organization based on land possession and served as a system of justice and order during the period of the decline of central government
- A large amount of land in Western Europe was held by the church. Pious or repentant men seeking to atone for a life of sin lift lands to the church
- The church (abbots and bishops) would give land to knights in exchange for protection
- The church became secular and concerned about land
- The people faced a choice:
- Be loyal to the temporal lord on who’s land he lived and worked
- Be loyal to the spiritual lord, the pope
- This became a breeding ground for bad doctrine
- The idea of the Holy Roman Empire survived even though it fell
- In Germany division of the people into smaller groups was great due to the interest and topography:
- In the north the rivers flowed north and the land was a plain.
- In the south the rivers flowed south and the land was mountainous
- Tribal divisions and feudalism led to decentralized authority
- The need for unity came when the northern Vikings invaded and the tribal dukes unified
86. Church History - 600-1000 AD - Islam, Iconoclasts
87. Church History - 800-1100 AD - Charlemagne, Otto, Schism, Hildebrand
919 Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony
- The Duke of Saxony, Henry the Fowler, was made ruler of these divided Germanic people
- He drove back the Vikings.
- In 936, Henry’s Son, Otto, became king or ruler over the Germanic tribes
- Otto made the dukes his vassals
- Otto took over the church and began appointing the bishops and abbots.
- Otto over extended his interest by becoming involved in affairs over the Alps in the church in Rome.
- Otto went to Italy to aid the pope in battle and was crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 962 which united all of central Europe until Napoleon in 1806.
- For the next 200 years the Roman church had weak leaders and the German emperors crossed the Alps to help bring order out of the Chaos.
- In 996 Otto III put down a faction of Roman nobles and forced the election of his cousin Bruno as Pope Gregory V.
- Eventually Innocent III will humiliate the German emperor.
1054 The East-West Schism
The History and Cause of the Schism of the Eastern and Western Church
- In 330 Constantine moved the Roman Empire capital to Constantinople.
- In 395 Theodosius place East and West administration under different heads.
- In 490 the Roman Empire falls in the West
- The fall of the West left the Emperors in the Est with no Emperor in the West. The pope (bishop of Rome) alone was left in the West and was too far away to be controlled by the East.
- In the East . . .the emperor was almost a pope
- In the West. . .the pope was almost an emperor
- Intellectual outlooks were different:
- Latin West spent time considering practical matters of polity. They had little trouble formulating orthodox doctrine.
- Greek mind in the East was more interested in solving theological problems along philosophical lines. Between 325-451 most theological problems arose in the East. The same issues were not problems in the West.
- Cultural differences:
- Celibacy differed – Eastern clergy married
- Beards –clergy in East had to wear a beard.
- Language – East was Greek, West was Latin. This led to misunderstandings.
- Theological differences: The “filoque” conflict - In 867 Photius, patriarch in Egypt, charged Nicholas I and church in West with heresy because the West had the “filoque” clause in its Nicene Creed. (In 589 at the Council of Toledo III the words “and the Son” or “filoque” were added to the Nicene Creed after “Holy Spirit that proceeded from the father and the Son.” The Western church since had insisted on the deity of the Holy Spirit.)
- The church in the east and the church in the west had a history of conflict:
- Easter Conflict, 150 AD
- Iconoclastic Controversy, 700 AD
- East destroyed or limited the power of monks
- Pope Nicholas tried to interfere with a church appointment in the East around 850
- Unleaven bread conflict in 1054
- In 1054 Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople condemned the West for using unleaven bread in the Eucharist. Pope Leo IX sent Cardinal Humbert to end the dispute. During discussion the differences widened between the church in Rome and the Church in Constantinople. On July 16, 1054, Cardinal Humbert excommunicated the East. Not to be outdone the patriarch anathematized the pope of Rome and his followers. For the first time universal unity was broken.
- On Dec. 7, 1965 the mutual excommunication was removed by Pope Paul VI and Athenagoras.
Some Differences Between Catholic in the West and Orthodox in the East
|Roman Catholic||Greek Orthodox|
|Led by Pope||Led by Patriarch|
|“Catholic” means universal||“Orthodox” means conforming to the accepted faith|
|Uses Latin language||Uses Greek language|
|Adam broke God’s law by sinning||Adam broke God’s image by sinning|
|Christ came to pay the penalty for sin||Christ came to restore the image of God in man|
|Focus: the death of Christ||Focus: the resurrection of Christ|
|Priests live celibate||Pastors marry|
|Government officials are less powerful than pope||Government is more powerful than church leaders|
|The bread of Mass is unleavened||The bread for the Eucharist is leavened|
|Clergy may choose to wear a beard; most do not||Clergy must have a beard|
|Doctrine of Immaculate Conception of Mary, the mother of God; She has a role in salvation of man||Mary is mother of Jesus, or “theotokos” the mother of God in flesh, but not the mother of God eternal|
1066 William the Conqueror King of England
- The Vikings conquered England under the leadership of William the conqueror.
1054-1305 Great Temporal Power of the Pope
- Papacy had great temporal power between 1054-1305 that included:
- Innocent III
- Obedient Monks
- The downfall of this temporal power is going to be nationalism in France and England
- Hildebrand spent 20 years (five popes in 1053-1073) as a humble servant of the pope trying to obtain powers for the pope.
- Hildebrand will then spent the next 12 years (1073-1085) reigning as the pope with those powers.
- In the 300’s certain churches had been designated as exclusive baptism sites. The pastors became known as Cardinal Priest at these locations.
- In the 200’s Rome had been divided into districts to do charity work. These pastors became known as Cardinal Deacons.
- Bishops near Rome were called Cardinal Bishops.
- These three groups became the Pope’s College of Cardinals.
- Cardinal Priests
- Cardinal Deacons
- Cardinal Bishops
- Under Pope Leo IX, Hildebrand was placed in charge of the Roman Finances, and thus over the Cardinals.
- Under Nicholas II, Hildebrand helped remove the ecclesiastical legislation from the population of Rome. The Cardinal Bishops would choose a candidate (while consulting the Cardinal priests and deacons) for a new pope. Then the people could vote. This prevented corruption from the German emperors, etc.
- In 1073, Hildebrand was unanimously elected as Pope Gregory VII as a result of the people shouting “Let Hildebrand be bishop.”
- Pope Gregory VII’s (Hildebrand) goal: The pope as absolute theocracy in spiritual and temporal power.
- Pope Gregory VII wanted no civil power to dominate the church.
- Pope Gregory VII wanted the church to control civil power.
- He stopped these practices:
- Lay investiture – where church leaders where appointed by their feudal lords.
- Simony (buying and selling church offices)
- Failure to enforce celibacy, to help men focus on and reform the church
- After the death of Gregory VII they found his writing “Dictatus Papae” which was a document with his letters that develops papal supremacy over temporal rulers and over the Roman Church.
- The “Dictatus Papae” said:
- Roman church founded by God alone
- Pontiff alone to be called “universal”
- Pope had full power over all bishops
- Only the popes feet should be kissed by “all princes”
- Pope could “depose emperors”
- Pope could release all subjects of evil rulers
- Archbishop of Canterbury, England
- Writer and thinker in the church who advanced the idea of both faith and reason in the Christian faith.
- In his writing he clearly communicated the rational necessity of atonement through Christ to unbelievers and believers
- Consider the greatest theologian between Augustine and Aquinas
- An abundance of his writings have been preserved including four hundred letters, twelve treatises and nineteen prayers.
88. Church History - 1100-1300 - Crusades, Scholasticism, Aquinas, Mystic
89. Church History - 1300-1517 - Mysticism, Wyclif, Avignon, Hus, Inquisition
90. Church History - 1517-1546 - John Calvin, Martin Luther
91. Church History - 1500-1850 - Protestantism
1096 First Crusade
- Pope Urban II launched the crusade to free the holy land and the holy sites from Muslim control
- Urban used the excuse of bringing military aid to the emperor of Constantinople and to protect pilgrims who were threatened by the more violent and radical Seljuk Turks who had replaced the Arabs in Palestine
- The crusade advanced quickly:
- Spring of 1097 arrived at Constantinople
- Summer of 1097 took Nicaea
- Fall of 1097 at Antioch and took Antioch in Spring of 1098
- June 15, 1099 took Jerusalem
- The crusader conquerors set up a feudal system as they had in Europe and built castles
- Many crusader kingdoms were set up in the areas they had conquered
- The Knights Templars came into existence at this time to protect pilgrims and fight the muslims
|Purpose: to free the Holy Land from the Muslims||Crusade||Year||Pope/Emperor||Location and Result|
|First||1096-1099||Urban II||Captured Nicea, Antioch, Edessa, Jerusalem
Established a several Crusader kingdoms|
|Second||1147-1148||Eugene III||Attempt to recapture Edessa in order to have a place to defend a Muslim advance on Jerusalem; it failed. Saladin recaptured Jerusalem for the Muslims in 1187|
|Third||1189-1192||Gregory VIII||The “King’s Crusade”; Emperor Frederick I drowned on the way; Philip went home; Richard lost but European pilgrims were given access to Jerusalem|
|Fourth||1200-1204||Innocent III||The goal was to take Egypt as a base to attack Jerusalem; Constantinople was taken which made the Eastern church subject to the Western Roman church again from 1204-1261|
|Children’s||1212||Nicholas (age 12)||100,000 teens and children were killed or enslaved on the way|
|Fifth||1219-1221||Honorius||Another attempt to take Egypt for a base of operation; crusaders ran short of supplies, turned back but were attacked and defeated. Result: Eight year peace treaty|
|Sixth||1229||Frederick II||Negotiation gave Christians Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth and a road to the sea.|
|Seventh||1248-1254||Louis IX||Louis IX of France was taken captive and ransomed for 50,000 times the entire annual revenue of France when he and thousands of his troops were defeated by Egypt|
|Eighth||1270||Louis IX||A crusade to defend the remaining crusader kingdoms from Muslim attacks. The plan was to attack Tunis (north coast of Africa) for a base to attack Egypt which was needed to attack Jerusalem. When they landed in Africa the army became sick from drinking water, even King Louis died.|
1090-1153 Bernard of Clairvaux
- French Abbot who reformed the monastic order of Cistercian and saved it from extinction.
- At the age of 25 Bernard started a monastery at Clairvaux that had 700 monks at his death. By the end of his life the Cistercian order had added 500 more monasteries.
- From his monastery he received and advised kings and popes and in his day was the unofficial ruler of Europe. His spiritual and moral authority set the stage for European culture.
- The focus of much of his writing concerned devotion to Christ and to Mary
- He breathed life into the crusades sending men to fight the infidels in the Holy Land while he fought to destroy heresy in Europe
- Bernard learned of the fall of the Crusader state in the country of Edessa to the Muslims while he was traveling Europe campaigning against a new wave of heretical preaching that rejected the authority Old Testament and the Epistles of the New Testament
- Bernard soon received authority from the Pope Eugene III, a former student of Bernard’s, to begin preaching a call for the second crusade
- Bernard believed that victory in the Holy Land would lead to the conversion of the Pagan’s there (Muslims) and usher in the return of the Lord Jesus.
- Bernard wrote the rule for the Knights Templar
- Bernard fueled the crusades and set the tone for the attitude of the inquisition
- Also known as Rome Council I
- It is the 10th Church council
- Decided that bishops are appointed by Popes
- Also known as Rome Council II
- It was an effort to heal the East and West Schism
- With the fall of the crusader state in the country of Edessa a second crusade began
- Edessa provided a buffer between Jerusalem and the Muslims
- Before the Crusaders left Europe they were convinced to kill the Jews in Germany whom they called “infidels” and God-killers”. Bernard of Clairvaux stopped the massacre although he had preached against the Jews.
- Two kings, Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, personally led their armies into Asia Minor and were defeated there by the Selijuk Turks
- Louis VII and Conrad III arrived in Jerusalem with the remnant of the army but the crusade was a failure and set up the fall of Jerusalem to the Muslims
1100 Notre Dame de Paris is built
1176 Peter Waldo founds the Waldensians
- A Wealthy merchant who read translations of the Gospel and experienced a spiritual conversion in 1176
- Imitating St. Alexis Waldo left his family, gave his goods to the poor and took a vow of poverty.
- Many followed his example in Lyons.
- He became an itinerant preacher and vigorously campaigned against the worldliness of the Church.
- He organized his followers into two classes: the Perfect and the Friends (or, Believers)
- He translated the Latin Bible into the languages of people.
- Pope Alexander III approved his lifestyle at the Third Lateran Council in 1179, but forbid him to preach without local approval.
- They were known as the “Poor Men of Lyons” and lived poor to condemn the churches wealth.
- Waldo ignored Alexander III and continued to preach and was condemned as a heretic.
- This group has survived into modern times in Europe, North and South America.
- The Waldensian church as a modern membership of about 35,000.
- Rome Council III
- 12th Church Council
- To enforce Ecclesiastical discipline
- Declared all usury (regardless of interest rate) forbidden. (Thus the Christian was not required to repay debts to the Jews.
- 2 Waldenses appeared to seek approval. They gave the pope a translation of their Bible for approval. The council mocked them and called them simple. When asked if they believed in the persons of the Trinity the Waldenses said “Yes.” When asked if they believed “in the Mother of Christ.” They also said “Yes.” The whole committee burst out laughing at the ignorance because it was not proper to believe “in” Mary but to believe “on” her. The Waldenses were excommunicated.
- Was a failure
- Three kings left with their armies: Richard of England, Philip II of France and the elderly Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick I
- Emperor Frederick accidentally drowned on the way to Palestine
- Philip II of France went home after a quarrel with Richard of England.
- Richard continued to fight but was unsuccessful in recapturing Jerusalem but did get the pilgrims access to Jerusalem.
- Children from France and Germany led by two boys not yet in their teens named Stephen and Nicholas
- They marched across southern Europe to Italy
- The logic was the purity of their lives would bring more success than their parents had due to the sinful condition of the adults.
- Many perished and the rest were sold as slaves into Egypt before they arrived
- An attempt to capture Egypt as a base to attack Jerusalem failed
- Pope unanimously elected while still a deacon
- Strengthened his political power with every opportunity
- Defeated King John of England who refused to accept Innocent’s nomination of a church man.
- He imposed an interdict (“to exclude from certain church offices, sacraments and privileges”) on England and threatened a crusade.
- In 1213 England agreed to become the possession of the pope and pay an annual tribute.
- The pope then ruled England for many years
- Up until the time of the pope’s absolute power education took place in monasteries. The pope supported the founding of universities.
- In these universities debates were carried on which reawakened intellectual life in Europe and helped expand the vocabulary and depth of Christian thought.
- An example: Discussion revolved around the meaning of Jesus words “This is my body, this is my blood.” A student named Berengar said that a real and true change takes place in these elements but the change is spiritual. Lanfranc and other theologians debated him saying it was an actual change although the “accidents” (touch, taste, sight and smell) of the bread and wine remain the same. Lafranc won the debate and the term “transubstantiation” took on Lanfranc’s definition. Berengar was condemned and forced to disown his views.
- Scholasticism was an age when the church controlled all education and they carried on their thinking against the background of what had gone before (classical philosophy of ancient Greece, the Bible and the teaching of the early Christian writers.)
- The great schoolmen: Anselm, Peter Abelard, Hugh of St Victor, Peter Lombard, Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus
- This movement put logic into faith. They organized the faith into a system.
- The men of scholasticism did not necessarily believe the same thing but instead thought and reasoned the same way.
- The theology that interested these men was basically philosophical.
- These men desired to confirm all that they had been taught. They made no original contribution to exegesis and biblical theology.
- They wanted to organize the doctrines in an orderly system called “summa theologiae”
- They went to the extreme of introducing into their discussions every imaginable question. These questions, if answered, would do no good except to satisfy a prurient curiosity.
- Anselm gives the best example of treatises on distinct subjects such as the existence of God, the necessity of the Incarnation, and the fall of the devil.
- Peter the Lombard produced the most clear
- Thomas Aquinas the most complete and finished systematic bodies of divinity.
- They began with the principle that faith precedes knowledge. As Anselm said, “I believe that I may understand; I do not understand that I may believe.” And quoted Isaiah 7:9, “If you will not believe, you surely shall not be established.”
- Thomas Aquinas was considered in his own day a dangerous innovator
- His work is said to be a lake with many streams flowing into it and from it but that his work by itself is no water source.
- He was original in the way he pulled together all the previous teaching and the rigorous way in which he explored question after question.
- Aquinas would quote everyone who had gone before, pool together all their ideas and then and only then would he produce his view.
- These men were no fools. They were rigorous, complex, and had great thinking capacity. They belong to the intellectual giants of humanity
- The Problems:
- They were often attempting the impossible.
- Much of their work was devoted to reconciling what can not be reconciled.
- They recognized the church fathers’ writings as infallible
- They force Greek philosophy to fit scriptural study. Often one or the other must change to fit. In this case you no longer have philosophy nor scripture.
- They were operating with out-dated concepts. Many of the questions that they wrestled with have turned out to be pseudo-questions in the light of our scientific view of the world. The questions they asked had theological bearing but their preoccupation with them hindered the hearing of the scriptural message.
- A boy could begin his university education at the age of 12. They only needed to know Latin.
- The privilege of lecturing in theology was not granted until a man was 35.
- Universities had 3,000-4,000 students.
- Two orders of monks developed at this time for both political and intellectual control of these universities for the pope:
- Franciscans – founded by Francis of Assisi in 1209. They held to traditional views, to Augustines’ theology and Plato’s philosophy.
- Dominicans – founded by Dominic in 1216. They emphasized the use of reason. Thomas Aquinas combined Greek rationalism and Christian doctrine to explain Chatholic philosophy.
- 13th Church Council, Rome Council IV
- The bidding of Innocent III. He dominated the council
- The focus was on heretics at home in Europe and abroad in the Holy Land
- There were seventy papal decrees that came from this council:
- Canon 1: Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus or “Outside the Chruch there is no salvation” and transubstantiation is mentioned
- Canon 3-4: Established the basis of the Inquisition – “Catholics who have taken the cross to exterminate heretics shall enjoy the indulgences and privileges granted to those who fight for the Holy Land.”
- Canon 5: Papal Primacy – the bishop of Rome is first followed by the bishop of Constantinople (Catholics had a bishop there after the fourth crusade), Alexandria, Antioch then Jerusalem
- Canon 13: Forbid the establishment of new religious orders
- Canon 21: Confession at least once a year, partake of Eucharist at Easter
- Canon 51: Clandestine marriages forbidden. A “Clandestine” marriage was one that took place outside the home church parish or outside of church control.
- Canon 68: Jews and Muslims had to wear a special dress to distinguish them from Christians nor can they leave their houses during four days of Easter. Jews forbidden from holding public office
- The fifth crusade was decreed and organized
- The crusade of 1217 was scheduled
- Received the papal sanction in 1216
- They began with approval from scholars, princes and popes
- Later they became idle, insolent and ignorant
- They were the salvation of Western Christianity in an era that had been overrun with Crusades and awful heresies.
- They supplied the universities and scholastic theology with some of the greatest minds.
- The founder, Dominic, was has been called a bright light and an ecclesiastical statesman. He was cold, systematic and a master disciplinarian. Dominic’s life’s work was to strengthen the church.
- The Franciscan Order was founded in 1223 and was identical to the Dominicans in purpose and historical development. Their founder was Francis. Francis was described as unpretentious, gentle with a great personality. His life work was to move among the people saving the souls of men. Contrary to Dominic who wanted to strengthen the church, Francis sought to carry the ministries of the Gospel to the masses.
- Features and vows:
1245 Lyons Council I
- 14th Church Council
- Settle quarrel with the pope and the emperor
- They prosecuted and deposed emperor Frederick II.
- An Italian poet wrote Divine Comedy which describes Dante’s journey through Hell, Purgatory and Paradise guided by the Roman poet Virgil
- 15th Church Council
- Attempt to unite East and West. The East was represented by an imposing delegation.
- Attended by 500 bishops and 1,000 other ecclesiastical leaders.
- Reaffirmed that the Spirit procedes from the Son.
- Repeated the prohibition of the institution of new monastic orders
- 16th Church Council
- The key topic of discussion was the disbanding and suppressing the Knights Templar
- The Knights Templar were the Knights of the Temple
- Founded in 1119 to protect pilgrims and to defend the Holy Land from Muslims
- The Knights Templar had outlived their purpose
- Beginning around 1307 the King and the Pope began to have these knights arrested including their grand master
- The Inquisition was set into motion in 1308. They were charged with false charges such as heresy, spitting upon the cross, worshipping an idol of Mohammed, along with sodomy, kissing the posterior parts and navel of fellow knights. Also of meeting with the devil and female demons. There were 127 total charges.
- Under the strain of prolonged torture many of the knights assent to these charges and admitted denying Christ.
- The king, the pope, the Dominican order, the University of Paris, and the French episcopacy was against them.
- Many renounced their confessions as they burned.
- In Paris 36 died under torture, 54 died in one burning, 100’s died in prison. This spread throughout Europe where the pope ordered trials in Germany, Italy, Spain, Cyprus, and England. Papal inquisitors went into all these countries.
- At the council of Vienne the majority were in favor of a new, fair trial but the king insisted that the order of the knights be abolished.
- This order of knights was abolished on March 22, 1312.
- Mysticism is described as “the perception of God through experience.”
- Its advocates say such an experience is reached by humility and penance more than through the path of speculation.
- It is the contemplative life followed with action.
- This contemplation is the knowledge of John 17:3, “This is life eternal, to know Thee and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast sent.”
- One of the early mystics, John Gerson, helped balance out experience with truth and feelings with reality:
- As coins are tested for hardness, weight, color, shape and stamping, so visions are to be tested by the humility and honesty of those who profess to have them and their readiness to teach and be taught.
- He agreed with the monk’s teaching when asked to look at an image of Christ, “I do not want to see Christ on the earth. I am contented to wait till I see him in heaven.”
- According to Job 33:14, “For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not,” he developed the principle that if visions reveal what is already in the Scriptures, then they are false, for God does not repeat himself. People have itching ears for revelations because they do not study the Bible.
- Warned against the revelations of women, as women are more open to deception than men.
- He taught that the scriptures are the Church’s rule and guide to the end of the world.
- It was the age of the decline of scholastic method, the scandals of Avignon court and the papal schism when mysticism began to develop.
- It began in Germany and was widespread among the Dominicans.
- The people North of the Alps began to draw attention to the value of the inner religious life and God’s immediate communications to the soul
- They were called the fFriends of God, the Brothers of the Common Life.
- The little books called the “German Theology” and “Imitation of Christ” were the finest of their works.
- Their leading names were:
- Meister Eckart, d. 1327
- John Tauler, d. 1361
- Henry Suso, d. 1366
- John Ruysbroeck, d. 1381
- Gerrit Groote, d. 1384
- Thomas a Kempis, d. 1471
- They formed groups, but had no formal organization
- They did no have universal expression but agreed on the pure heart and union with God.
- It was a life of devotion, not outward, formal practice of religious rules.
- It was an experience more than assent to intellectual tenets of faith.
- The element of intuition has a large place
- Mysticism had risen earlier in the middle ages and would appear again in the 1600’s as French quietism (Madame Guyon, Fenelon).
- For example, Echart sought the loss of our being in the ocean of the Godhead.
- Ruysbroeck sought the impact t of the divine nature upon our nature at its innermost point, kindling with divine love as fire kindles.
- Tauler described it as the undisturbed peace of the soul.
- Bernard expressed it as passionate and rapturous love for Jesus, but in the end he felt it was not possible to reach it in this world.
- This was the antithesis of the theology of the Schoolman. Where Scholasticism had beaten a dusty highway for years, the mystics moved in the private, moist, shady pathways.
- The German mysticism emphasized above all dogmas the necessity of the new birth.
- Although church councils have not quoted from them the fruit of the German mystics was Luther, Melanchthon and the reformation
- The dangers:
- In seeking to hear the voice of God in their hearts ran the huge risk of considering the conscious, cultural standards and imagination for revelation from God.
- It magnified individualism and their own emotions and desires without considering that everyone feels the same way
- Take a Virtual Pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the Middle Ages http://crusades.boisestate.edu/vpilgrim/
92. Church History - 1800-2000
1536 John Calvin (1509-1564)
- Calvin was a Frenchman, born in France and educated at the Paris University
- Calvin suffered from migraines, ate one meal a day, was physically weak, he suffered from poor health, slept four hours a night and continued to grow thin and bent.
- Calvin was exiled from France in 1535
- Calvin stopped by Geneva not intending to stay when he was convinced by God and a local pastor that he was needed in Geneva.
- Calvin began to teach the people and the magistrates of Geneva God’s word and Calvin’s plans for a revived city. These plans included:
- A teaching church
- Orthodox faith
- Obedient to holiness demonstrated in private and public lives
- Daily church gatherings for singing and expository preaching
- Monthly service of the Lord’s Supper
- Church court to discipline and excommunicate members
- Magistrates of the local Geneva government would support the church
- In 1536, at the age of 26 John Calvin published his book Institutes of the Christian Religion as an introduction to Protestant theology that altered to refined the Protestant movement and directed the direction of the Western church until today
- In 1553 an anti-Trinitarian teacher named Servetus was burned in Geneva as a heretic.
Five “Solas” of the Protestant Faith
|sola scriptura||“by Scripture alone”|
|sola fide||“by faith alone”|
|sola gratia||“by grace alone”|
|solo Christo||“by Christ alone”|
|soli Deo gloria||“glory to God alone”|
1546 Luther dies
1546-1552 Lutheran Wars
- Wars between the Protestants and the Catholics in Germany
- Ended the wars in Germany between Protestants and Catholic
- Placed Lutheranism on a basis of legal equality with Roman Catholicism in Germany.
- Each German prince (225 of them) would determine the religion of his territory
- Roman Catholic Priests that had converted to Lutheranism had to return their territory to the Roman Church
Calvanist Theology Compared to Catholic Theology
| ||Calvanist (Protestant)||Catholic|
|Church Tradition, Pope, Councils, Scripture|
Guilt Inherited from Adam
|Man’s nature is corrupt but not totally
Tendency toward evil from Adam|
In bondage to sin
|Able to do spiritual good|
God Caused it
|God foreknew it|
Christ’s death is a substitutionary sacrifice that paid sin’s penalty
|Christ’s death provided the merit for the blessing of salvation that comes to man through sacraments|
Common grace to all
Saving grace only for elect
|Prevenient grace that enables a
sinner to believe|
Produced by the grace of God,
Unworthy of merit of any kind
Work of the Holy Spirit in the Elect
|Grace given at baptism|
Judicial act of God
|Forgiveness received at baptism,
Lost during mortal sins,
Regained by penance|
Recognizes visible church and also invisible universal church
|Outside the visible Catholic church
there is no salvation|
Means of grace if received by faith
|Provide justifying and sanctifying grace|
One high priest, Jesus, in heaven
All believers are priests
|The Catholic priests are the mediators between God and man|
1580 Resolving Doctrinal Conflict
- From 1555-1580 Lutheranism was marred by internal doctrinal controversy
- Most were over issues that Luther and Melanchthon differed
- One main issue was the place of preaching the law
- Luther preached the Law as a means of revealing men’s sinfulness
- Others said only the gospel should be preached
- The Majoristic Controversy
- George Major contended good works were important part of but not means of salvation
- Luther’s followers said this was a return to the Roman doctrine of salvation by faith and works
- The German Princes realized the divisions caused political and religious disunity
- Beginning in 1577 they began the process of establishing doctrine in the “Formula of Concord” and published it in 1580
- The Lutheran theologians produced “The Book of Concord”
- These disputes made the Lutherans very conscious of the importance of doctrine
- This emphasis led to cold, scholarly orthodoxy that ignored the subjective spiritual aspects.
- The Pietistic movement arose in the 1600’s as a reaction to this.
Zwingli, Swiss Reformer (1484-1531)
Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556)
1526 William Tyndale (1494-1536)
- Translates English New Testament into English in 1526
- Studied at Oxford in 1512 and was ordained as a priest
- Tyndale was fluent in eight languages: French, Greek, Hebrew, German, Italian, Latin, Spanish and English
- After receiving his MA decree he was allowed to start his studies in theology but was shocked to find out the theology studies did not include the study of scripture.
- Tynale got in trouble with other clergymen for his opinions that included plans to translate the scripture into English and was charged with heresy in 1522
- The clergy’s position concerning the translation of the Bible was, “We had better be without God’s laws than without the Pope’s”. Tyndale responded dangerously but with clear direction, “I defy the Pope, and all his laws; and if God spares my life, I will cause the boy that drives the plow in England to know more of the Scriptures than the Pope himself.”
- The only English Bible available at the time was John Wyclif’s 1380 translation from Latin into English which was secretly distributed by the Lollards, the followers of Wyclif
- 1524 Tyndale leaves for Germany to complete his translation of the New Testament from Greek into English.
- 1525 Tynale’s first printing of the New Testament at Cologne, Germany was interrupted by a raid on the printing house. Tyndale fled to Worms. (one incomplete copy survives today)
- 1526 Tyndale’s first complete of the New Testament printed at Worms, Germany where 6,000 copies were made (two of these copies survive today)
- Tyndale’s English New Testament was smuggled into England and the church burned them as fast as they found them
- Over the next ten years revisions were made and other printings followed
- 1535 Tyndale betrayed and arrested at Antwerp
- 1536 Tyndale is strangled and burned by the church at Brussels
- Founder of the Society of Jesus whose members are called Jesuits
- Wrote “Spiritual Exercises” in 1522-1524 which are a month long set of meditations, prayers and mental exercises
- Very active in fighting the Protestant Reformation and advancing the Counter-Reformation in the Roman Catholic church
- A Jesuit priest sent to evangelize India, Indonesia and Japan
- 20th Church Council
- Lasted from 1545-1563
- Counter Reformation
- Major Decisions:
- Tradition of the church is equal in authority as Scripture
- Apocrypha accepted as part of the canon of Scripture
- Latin Vulgate is declared the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church
- Justification by faith alone is a heresy
- Transubstantiation is affirmed
1558 Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603), Queen of England
- Elizabeth and others wanted to break away from the Church of Rome
- The Act of Supremacy became law in 1559 which made Elizabeth the Supreme Governor of the Church of England
- The Act of Uniformity was passed requiring church attendance and the use of Thomas Cranmer’s 1552 Book of Common Prayer
Zwingli’s reformation in Switzerland was closely associated with the Anabaptist
Anabaptist means “baptized again” or “the re-baptizers”
Absolute authority of the Bible
Everything had to be proved in scripture
Was a humanist and followed Erasmus
As a humanist he believed that Socrates and Plato would be in heaven as well as many Roman Catholics
Unconditional predestination to salvation but, only those who heard and rejected the gospel in unbelief were predestined to condemnation.
Lord’s supper symbolic and faith was the essential element
Lord’s supper was “commemorative” rather than a “repetition” of the atonement.
- First appeared in Switzerland
- Zwingli’s insistence on the Bible as the basis for teaching of the preachers encouraged the rise of Anabaptist concepts
- Founder of Swiss Anabaptist movement
- Wealthy, influential family
- Good education from Vienna and Paris
- 1522 – converted
- 1525 – broke with Zwingli
- 1525 – Zurich council ordered Grebel to stop having Bible studies
- Zwingli had taught that infant baptism had no biblical basis but when he realized it was too radical for many to be re-baptized (ana-baptist) and his movement would be too slow, he gave up his earlier stance.
- More radical Anabaptists opposed state control
- Zwingli debated them at first, but turned to fines and exile when that failed.
- By 1535, Anabaptist were nonexistent in Zurich because of cruel treatment and fleeing.
- Excellent education with doctor of theology while studying under John Eck, Luther’s opponent.
- In 1525 Hubmaier and 300 others were baptized by pouring
- Hubmaier fled to Austria and then was banished to Moravia
- In Moravia he began to lead those who had fled from the Zwinglian persecution
- 1,000’s of Moravians became Anabaptists
- 1528 Hubmaier was burnt at the stake
- His wife was drowned in the Danube by the Catholic Church
- Hubmaier believed:
- Separation of church and state
- Authority of the Bible
- Baptism of believers
- Discredited the many sound believers in the movement
- Bad eschatology
- The Zwickau prophets (i.e.: 1522 in Wittenberg vs. Luther)
- 1535 Munster rebellion by Anabaptist alienated Luther
- Promoted socialism and selling of property to aid poor
- 1529 Melchior Hoffman arrived in Strasbourg to await the Millennium in 1533
- Jan Matthys, the baker, replaced Hoffman. Matthys though he was Enoch.
- Matthys was killed in fighting and his wife married John Leyden. Leyden had 15 wives. Polygamy was practiced due to the excessive number of women.
- Disorder arose from the common goods for the community (based on communal pattern of early church in Acts) and fanatical anticipation of the coming kingdom.
- A catholic bishop recaptured Strasbourg and executed the Anabaptist leaders.
- Persecution drove them to Hungary, Ukraine, and South Dakota in 1874. These are know today as Hetterites and practice agrarian communalism on a voluntary basis
- A sane leader in the Netherlands avoided the chaos and confusion of the Munster Anabaptist
- 1536 – Simons gave u priesthood to embrace Anabaptist
- To avoid “Anabaptist” stigma they took up name “brethren.
- The “brethren” became the Mennonites of today.
- Generally: They insisted that all believers had the right to interpret the Bible as literal and final authority.
- Result: Many different Anabaptist groups with slight variations.
- Calvinist reformer
- Born in Scotland in 1513
- A notary by profession
- Embraced Protestantism in the 1540’s
- Became a leader of the protestant movement in Scotland
- He was Edward VI of England’s chaplain but fled when Mary Tudor succeeded him.
- Settled in Geneva. There he met and was influenced by John Calvin
- Returned to Scotland in 1559 to reform the Scottish Church along Calvinist lines, but clashed often with Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots.
- When she was overthrown in 1567 Knox’s reforms triumph
- When the Scot and ScotIrish immigrants came to the U.S. during the Colonial period they brought with them the church that John Knox established in Scottland.
- John Knox’s Scottish Protestantism, influenced by John Calvin, became the Presbyterian Church.
1554-1612 John Smyth, founder of modern Baptists
- Born in 1554
- Ordained into the Church of England
- City preacher in Lincoln from 1600-1605
- Renounced the Church of England in 1606
- Became a minister to a group of Separatists
- Accepted the newly emerging ‘Baptist’ principle of believers’ baptism
- He first baptized himself and then the others in Amsterdam.
- He also baptized Thomas Helwys the founder of the first Baptist church on British soil.
- Died in Amsterdam, the Netherlands
1600-1700 Pietism and Methodism
1610 Jacobus Arminius (1559-1609)
- A year after Arminius’ death a publication called Five Articles of the Remonstrants orgainized Arminius’ ideas that became known as Arminianism
- Arminius disagreed with Calvinism’s ideas of predestination in salvation and unconditional election
- The debate between Calvinism and Arminianism did not occur between Calvin and Arminius since they were not contemporaries. It did not begin until after Arminius’ death
- This debate was reply of the debate in the 400’s between Augustine and Pelagius
Calvinist Theology Compared to Arminian Theology
|Weakness inherited from Adam|
In bondage to sin
|Free to do spiritual good|
|Common grace for all|
|Saving grace for the elect|Enabling grace given to all Saving grace given to those
Persevering grace given to those who obey
God caused it
Holy Spirit alone through election and irresistible grace
Jesus died as a substitute for man and to pay penalty of sin
Who Can Be Saved
Only the elect
How does Salvation Come
By the Holy Spirit
according to God’s will
Order of Salvation Events
election predestination union with Christ, calling regeneration faith repentance justification sanctification glorification calling faith repentance regeneration justification perseverance glorification
The elect can not loss their salvation
1611 King James Bible Published
1618-1648 The Thirty Year War
- The Thirty Year War was fought on German soil between Protestants and Catholics
- The war began as a Protestant reaction to the anti-protestant violence inflicted on them by the Catholic Church which included large groups of Protestants being hung.
- The war involved all of Europe and spread to involve many issues
- The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 ended the hostilities but Germany was left with a devastated culture politically, economically and physically
1740 The Great Awakening
1714-1770 George Whitefield
1780 Robert Raikes first Sunday school for children
1783 John Wesley (1703-1791)
1793 William Carey
- Sails for India
1795 London Missionary Society
1807 British Parliament Abolishes Slave Trade
1816 African Methodist Episcopalian Church
- Founded by Richard Allen
1827 John Darby (1801-1882)
- Helps start the Plymouth Brethren
- Begins Urban Revivals
1844 Kierkegaard writes Philosophical Fragments
1848 Karl Marx publishes Communist Manifesto
1854 Soren Kierkegaard Publishes His Attacks on Christianity
- Kierkegaard attacked the lifeless Danish church for having reduced Lutheranism to merely a devotional form and a philosophic system for the pursuit of money and power
- Kierkegaard developed this into the foundation of modern subjectivity of theology and existentialism
- Pastor in London
- Mormons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventist (1844) and Christian Science are established
- New philosophies emerge:
- Marx’s communism
- Darwin’s evolution
- Freud’s psychology
- German higher criticism of scripture’s authenticity
- By 1900 there have been 62 generations of people since Christ
- By 1900 34% of the world is Christian, 51% of the world has been evangelized and scripture is printed in 537 languages
- Converted in Boston in 1855
- Moved to Chicago in 1856
- Became a successful shoe salesman
- Started a Sunday school in the slums in 1858
- This became a church in 1863
- Organized Sunday school teacher conventions
- Went on a preaching tour in Britain from 1872-18175 with Ira Sankey and received enthusiastic responses.
- Did several in the U.S. and again in Britain.
- Started a school for women in 1879
- Started a school for men in 1881.
- Started what would become known as Moody Bible Institute in 1889
- Died in 1899
1860 Civil War Begins
1865 Hudson Taylor establishes China Inland Mission
1869-1870 Vatican I
- 20th Church Council
- Declared Pope Infallible
- Pope Pius IX proclaims the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary
- Pope Pius IV condemns liberalism, socialism and rationalism
1885 Julius Wellhausen
- Wellhausen was a critic of the Old Testament’s accuracy and authenticity
- His Document hypothesis explained that the first five books of the Old Testament came from four different text sources (J, P, D, E) and were written hundreds of years after Moses supposedly had lived
- Missions have reached every region of the world
- 95% of humanity can read the Bible in their language
- Common understanding is that more Christians were martyred in the 20th century than all of the other centuries added together
- 33% of the world is Christian
- Atheistic states rise and fall
- Church attendance declines in the west
- Beginning of modern Pentecostal movement
- President of the Union Oil Company, Lyman Stewart, was concerned about the rising tide of liberal thinking and teaching of the American churches.
- Lyman put together $300,000 to publish booklets that covered:
- Basic Christian Doctrine
- The evil of socialism
- The evil of Evolution
- The danger of Materialism
- Some of the editing was done by R. A. Torrey
- 3,000,000 copies were printed and distributed for free between 1910-1915
- These booklets were published in a set of books called The Fundamentals and distributed at no charge to pastors, evangelists, missionaries, theological students, Sunday school superintendents, YMCA and YWCA secretaries
- The Fundamentals educated and united believers with a core conservative view of scriptures that resisted the modern wave of liberal Christian theology and began the Fundamentalist movement
1914 World War I begins
1924 First Christian Radio Broadcast
1931 C.S. Lewis (1898-1963)
1934 Wycliffe Bible Translators is Established
1939 World War II begins
1940 First Christian Television Broadcast
1942 National Association of Evangelicals is formed
1947 Dead Sea Scrolls Discovered
1948 World Council of Churches
1949 Billy Grahm
- Los Angeles Crusade
1960 Beginning of the Modern Charismatic movement
1962-1965 Vatican Council II
- 22nd Church Council
- Effort to bring Christendom into one church
- Many Catholics thought the church became too liberal and too accommodating to Protestants
- Largest ever
- Major Decisions Made:
- Laity were recognized as spiritual priests
- Translation of the Bible into people’s language and the reading of the Bible by laity was encouraged
- Protestants were referred to as “separated brethren”
- Excommunication of the Eastern Church from the Great Schism of 1054 were revoked
- Religious freedom for all was supported
- Dialogue with people of other faiths was supported and even encouraged
- The Catholic “Index” of prohibited books was eliminated
- Mass was required to be preformed in the language of the people with the people participating
- Veneration of Mary was encouraged
- Papal infallibility was reaffirmed
- Tradition as a basis of authority was reaffirmed
- The Catholic church as the only was of salvation was reaffirmed
Church History’s Pendulum
|Beliefs and Practices based on Experience and Emotions||Years||Beliefs and Practices based on Intellect and Rituals|
The Flow of
Throughout Church History
In Response to Heresies
|Area of Theology||Years||Heresy Resulting in Development and Definition|
| – Study of the Bible|
| – Study of God
Pneumatology – Study of Holy Spirit|
| – Study of Christ|
| – Study of Man
Hamartiology – Study of Sin|
| – Study of Salvation|
| – Study of the Church|
| – Study of Last Things|
|End Time Cults|